Palestine Facts

Palestine Facts Palestine Facts

US Cuts UNESCO Funds after Palestine Vote, 2011 Palestinians Bid for UN Membership, 2011 GEOGRAPHY & POPULATION BASICS Early History of Palestine How did the Zionists acquire land in Palestine? What about Christians in Palestine? Who were the inhabitants of Palestine before the Zionists? Who, besides Jews, supported the Zionist's ideas? What is Aliyah? What is Zionism and who are the Zionists? What is the significance of Jerusalem to Jews and Muslims? When did Islam come to Palestine? What is the Arab history in Palestine? What was the extent of Palestine in Biblical times? Who were the original inhabitants of Palestine? What is the evidence that the United Nations is biased against Israel? Antiquity of Israel Brief History of Palestine What was the impact of the Zionists on Palestine? What is the significance of Jerusalem to Jews and Muslims? Judea and Samaria Origin of the Name Palestine Zionism and Zionists History Through World War I to the British Mandate Arab Results from WW I Arab Role in WW I The Balfour Declaration Impact of Balfour Declaration The British Mandate The British Mandate: Creation of Jordan British WW I Promises to the Arabs The British Mandate: Reaction What did the Jews get as a result of World War I? British WW I Promises to the Jews Jewish Role in WW I King-Crane Commission of 1919 End of WW I in Palestine Palestine at Eve of WW I Palestine During the British Mandate What Happened at the Zionist Biltmore Conference in May 1942? Independent State of Israel Arab Countries Reaction to the State of Israel Arab Reaction to the State of Israel Who killed Count Folke Bernadotte? Founding of the State of Israel Legal Basis of the State of Israel Israel From 1948 Through 1967 Assassination of King Abdullah of Jordan Egyptian Purchase of Soviet Arms in 1955 Fedayeen attacks on Israel in the 1950s Captured Jewish Holy Sites Desecrated Jordan Annexed West Bank after 1948 War Kfar Kassem Incident in 1956 Israel’s Security Fence Israel’s Law of Return Israel From 1967 Through 1991 Fourth Geneva Convention Achille Lauro Hijacking 1985 The al-Aqsa Mosque fire of 1969 Algiers Declaration of a Palestinian State, 1988 The Allon Plan Yasser Arafat in the 1970s and 1980s 1978 Camp David Peace Accords Baker Plan, 1989 Egypt’s Peace Proposals 1971-1973 Entebbe Rescue Operation, 1976 Eight Point Fahd Plan, 1981 Geneva Peace Conference in 1973 Gulf War of 1991 Effects on Israel & Palestinian Arabs Israel-Morocco Relationship UN International Conference on the Question of Palestine The First Intifada, 1987 Israel Attacks Iraqi Nuclear Facility, 1981 Israel’s May 1989 Peace Initiative UN Jarring Mission 1968-1970 Jordan Expels the PLO in 1970 Jordan Renounced Claims to West Bank, 1988 The Khartoum Resolution of 1967 Land Day 1976 Israel Invasion of Lebanon in 1978 Israeli Invasion of Lebanon 1982 Withdrawal from Lebanon 1985 Lod Airport Massacre Cairo Agreement between Lebanon and PLO 1969 Attempted Assassination of the Israeli Ambassador in London, 1982 The PLO in Lebanon Background of Madrid Peace Conference, 1991 Israeli Campaign in Lebanon 1982-1985 Attempted Assassination of the Israeli Ambassador in London, 1982 The PLO in Lebanon Background of Madrid Peace Conference, 1991 Operation Moses, 1985 Israeli 1972 Olympic Team Murdered in Munich Result of the Oil Embargo of 1973? PLO Cairo Declaration, 1985 PLO 1988 Declaration 1974 PLO Phased Plan PLO in Tunisia PLO Granted Observer Status at the UN, 1975 UN Committees and Divisions for Palestinians Quneitra, Syria October 1974 Rabat Arab Summit Conference The 1982 Reagan Plan Rogers Plan in 1969 Sabra and Shatila Refugee Camps 1982 Massacre Sadat’s Visit to Israel, 1977 Egypt’s Anwar Sadat Assassinated in 1981 Shultz Plan, 1988 Israel and the Territories after the 1967 War Occupied Territories? Ma'alot, Kiryat Shmona, and Other Terrorist Targets in the 1970s United Nations Security Council Resolution 338 United Nations Security Council Resolution 338, 339, 340, and 344 United Nations Security Council Resolution 344 UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) UN Resolution Equating Zionism and Racism War of Attrition during 1969-1970 Agreements Ending the Yom Kippur War 1973 Course of the Yom Kippur War 1973 Second UN Emergency Force (UNEF) Result of the Yom Kippur War of 1973 Who started the Yom Kippur War 1973? Israel From 1991 Through The Present Casualties of the al-Aqsa intifada Death of Mohammed al-Dura Attack on Joseph’s Tomb in October 2000 Mitchell Commission Start of the al-Aqsa Intifada in 2000 Taba Conference, 2001 Issues Regarding Jerusalem Current Status between Israel and Lebanon Mahmoud Abbas Role of Marwan Barghouti The story of Benjamin Netanyahu Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin Assassinated, 1995 What did the Jews get as a result of World War I? Road Map for Peace Israel’s Security Fence What about the settlements? Ariel Sharon a War Criminal? United Nations Observers Yassir Arafat Frequently Asked Questions What is the evidence that the United Nations is biased against Israel? Who are the leaders of Israel? Is Israel an apartheid state? SEARCH PALESTINE FACTS Israeli Palestinian Conflict

 


View Larger Map

Palestine Facts is dedicated to providing comprehensive and accurate information regarding the historical, military, and political background to the on-going struggle between the State of Israel and the Palestinian Arabs. The situation is complex with deep and diverse roots. By using the resources of this large and growing site, you can become much more knowledgeable about what is going on and why.

The information on this site is organized into sections, by historical period. Each page has a menu at the top and bottom. Use the menu to navigate to any section or use the search box at the top to search Palestine Facts. You can also go directly to the search page.

Many of the issues span more than one period so there are frequent cross references between the topic pages. Each section will provide overview information and a summary of key issues and facts along with links to high-quality resources on the web where you can learn more. We have covered the whole array of facts on Palestine, with topics as diverse as the WW I impact on the Arabs and Jews  to events as recent as the Palestinian bid for UN membership and the UNESCO membership acceptance and their aftermath.

We urge our visitors to go beyond the “sound bite” version of events and dig in to find out the truth. This site will do all it can to be a valuable source for your search for information. If you would like to provide additional material for our pages, please send an email to sara@palestinefacts.org.

Justin Bieber Concert Tickets  Texas Rangers Tickets For Sale  Jersey Boys Tickets


Note: This is a moderated site. Only comments that add value to the discussion will be published. § 184 Responses to Israeli Palestinian Conflict Liz H. says: July 14, 2011 at 2:39 pm

This whole site is propagandized BS and it is apparent to almost everyone who visits this site. Additionally, the audacity it takes to name a website “Palestine FACTS” in such a context is atrocious. I am not of the Jewish faith, nor am I Palestinian/an Arab speaker. Yes you may be assured that I am no anti-semite (referring to its ORIGINAL root meaning, “semite” meaning Jew or Arab) I am merely just another unbiased observer that has taken the time to read through flawed rhetoric– a tool that, unfortunately, has been used to ruin lives for the past several decades. Though you probably will not publish this comment (why would you? it would be out of keeping with the new anti-boycott law mentality) I know it will be read. Therefore, as long as those that publish sites such as these are forced to reflect on how their actions may resemble those of a Motzi Sheim Ra, I am satisfied.

Reply Michael says: September 2, 2011 at 2:31 am

Liz,

I totally agree with you. What a crock to call this website PALESTINE FACTS! I’d like to know who is behind this website! Strangely enough, you don’t see any names on this website, except on a photograph. I am almost certain that this website has been put up by jewish individuals with a slanted view of reality! What a shame that historical distortions continue to drive a wedge between peoples of the world and the cause of peace and justice! Of all people, you would think that persecuted jewish people would be the most just and sympathetic in dealing with other persecuted people!

I just watched an Al Jazeera documentary (Witness: The Land Speaks Arabic) with interviews about the atrocities commited by the Hagana in the 30s and 40s in Palestine and how so many poor Palestinians were killed (including pregnant women) and tens of their villages were taken by force. There were eyewitness accounts of the brutal kilings of their Palestinian friends and families! They talked of merciless shootings of hundreds of peole at random! I saw newspaper headlines of the time, confirming these facts, including the bombing of the King David Hotel, train derailments, explosions and many other terrorist acts which were terrorist acts of the Hagana, designed to destabilize Palestine and send the poor, unarmed villagers and city dwellers running for their lives. Menachem Begin was one of the terrorists wanted for these crimes along with many others. I couldn’t believe my eyes! Menachem Begin, a wanted terrorist, who later became the prime minister of Israel? How could such a thing happen?

Thankfully most Israeli citizens are in favor of peace and a Palestinian state. Now if we could get rid of distortions like this website or any similar website, be they pro-Israel or pro-Palestine, the world would stand a better chance of finally seeing peace in the Middle East.

What audacity! PALESTINE FACTS!!!!

Michael says: September 2, 2011 at 2:37 am

I totally agree wtih you Liz. What audacity! PALESTINE FACTS!!!! I suspect this website has been put up by certain jewish people with an agenda, disguised as “impartial providers of facts.” All you need to do is to watch the Al Jazeera documentary called “Witnes: The Land Speaks Arabic.” It talks about the many terrorits acts of the Hagana, merciless killings (including pregnant women), bombings and terror to create instability in Palestine and taking over many tens of villages.

The bombing of the King David Hotel in Palestine by Menachem Begin (who in those days was a wanted terrorist!!) and others…..

PALESTINE DISTORTIONS is more like it!

Joe from Boston says: September 20, 2011 at 5:21 pm

I disagree with Liz H (as does the historical record, which neither she nor i can make up at this late date).

UN Resolution 181 was passed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on November 29, 1947 with 33 votes in favor, 13 against, 10 abstentions and one nation absent.
One of the provisions of Resolution 181 reads in relevant part:
Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem, set forth in Part III of this Plan, shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the armed forces of the mandatory Power has been completed but in any case not later than 1 October 1948.

So way back in 1947, the Arabs had the UN approval for a state, which they REJECTED. Now they want a “do-over,” mulligan, second chance, etc.

Let’s look at some other historical events, which anyone can read about in old newspapers.

The population of Palestine was divided on accepting Resolution 181. The Jewish Palestinians accepted the Resolution. The Arab Palestinians were of two minds; some stayed in place as if nothing was happening, and some responded to the entreaties of the surrounding Arab countries to evacuate, so that a war could be fought and won against the Jews, and then the Arab Palestinians could return.
Although all of the surrounding Arab countries including Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt attacked Israel (as did several other Arab countries), the Israelis were not defeated.

In the Fall of 1956, Great Britain and France became angry when Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal. In the 1956 war, Great Britain, France and Israel all fought against Egypt. Although Israel captured the Sinai Peninsula, it agreed to return that captured territory to Egypt.

In June 1967, in response to the Egyptian blockade of the port of Eilat, Israel fought the Six Day War with Egypt. Jordan was warned to stay out of the fight, but elected to participate anyway, as did Syria. Israel won territory on all fronts. Israel again handed the Sinai Peninsula back to Egypt.

In 1973, several Arab states began a surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur. After several weeks, Israel again prevailed, and again turned captured territory back to Egypt.

How many other military victors have turned territory back to the vanquished? If you pick a fight and you lose, generally that is your tough luck, and you should take responsibility for your actions.

And how do you negotiate with someone who wants nothingmore than to kill you? Do you think the US could have negotiated with Osama bin Laden?

So please tell me what the “crock” is, when this web site reports events that did occur, other than your OBVIOUS BIAS.

Stosh says: September 27, 2011 at 6:54 pm

Liz, the term “anti-Semite” was coined in the late 19th century by German philosophers and writers to describe those people who hated Jews. The term has nothing to do with Arabs, in spite of the fact that they are also Semites.

Robert M. Siegfried says: October 2, 2011 at 4:49 pm

From your comment about not being an “antisemite in the original meaning of the term”, does this mean that you are following the part line of Arab anti-Zionists who use this semantic argument to cover their Jew-hatred?

One fact remains – Jews living today are of Semitic, middle eastern descent and historically come from the area of mandatory Palestine. The bulk of Israel’s Jews are of more immediately Middle Eastern descent, i.e., Yemenite, Syrian, Moroccan, Tunisian, Persian, Libyan, Egyptian, Iraqi, etc. Population exchanges have happened before and led to stable homelands. But in this case, the desire to keep Palestinian victimhood alive, they are denied citizenship in every Moslem country except Jordan, kept in refugee camps and even when they are permanently settled in other countries (such as the US), their status are refugees is maintained by the UN.

Rebekah says: October 4, 2011 at 10:16 pm

Are you people who disagree by any chance in or have been in college between the year 2000 up to now and taking history as a major or just as a general class because if not please don’t talk about things you know nothing about because people use this for research whether right or wrong and your confusing them and me.

Benyamin Solomon says: March 21, 2012 at 4:36 am

Liz, how are you unbiased? This site provides factual information on the Arab-Israeli conflict. Liz, you clearly are another one of these anti-Israel propagandists, which is being anti-Semitic in nature. Let’s refute some of your claims.

“Yes you may be assured that I am no anti-semite (referring to its ORIGINAL root meaning, “semite” meaning Jew or Arab)”

That argument has been used as a cover by anti-Semites. While Semites include Jews, Arabs, and other peoples, any dictionary definition will tell you that anti-Semitism means being against Jews for being Jews.

“I am not of the Jewish faith, nor am I Palestinian/an Arab speaker.”

Who cares what your ethnicity or nationality is [there is no such thing as a "Palestinian" people; but that's another area of discussion]? Not everyone, who hates Israel has to be Arab or Muslim. In fact, there are self-hating Jews, who hate Israel as well.

“Though you probably will not publish this comment (why would you? it would be out of keeping with the new anti-boycott law mentality) I know it will be read. Therefore, as long as those that publish sites such as these are forced to reflect on how their actions may resemble those of a Motzi Sheim Ra, I am satisfied.”

So you support boycotting Israel? Wow, that’s really unbiased [lol]!!! You’re the one spreading Motzi Sheim Ra. You claim to be unbiased while you reveal that you support boycotting Israel. And you think that being neither Arab nor Jewish makes you unbiased. That’s hilarious. This website has come out with factual analysis and is a great counterbalance to the anti-Israel propaganda.

Wakefield says: August 7, 2011 at 3:01 am

Just to play Devil’s Advocate:

Among the issues brought up, first of all the Balfour Declaration was repudiated, and in the first place was never intended to go being the mere settlement issue—not full blown nation-state as we see in Israel today. Next, even IF it had, the author points out that you can’t just muscle in on an area by the corrupt desires of the Brit Empire (what right did they have to the area that they could make deals) and the other problem was that they had PREVIOUSLY promised the whole region to the Arabs. As far as history, and race, and the issues surrounding who was where first, this argument is said to be tedious and hare-brained due to multiple problems:

First, just because your ancestors were there at some distant point in the past does not mean you can dig your heels in later on what someone has settled later. I am part Brit. Neither I nor my family have any territorial “recall” rights to Brit territory, nor any of Her Majesty’s remaining dominions. We would not like it if a group of Catawba Indians, who previously lives in what is now South Carolina, declared that “behold, we hold this sacred land for all Catawba”, and (like Palestine) the rest of us get kicked out and must flee by international decree to Florida or Georgia, due to some rather questionable—at best—authority due an edict from the UN.

Again, Britain aquired this region via conquest in the fallout of WW1, but that’s NOT the same as saying it had moral or legal authority to carve Palestine up like a roast.

As to the oft-repeated claim that “palestine” was never a nation, but a region, that is said to be a strawman argument. No one really disputes this, but is focused instead on the issue of displacement of the people forced out when Israel was created in 1947 after what had been mostly majority Arab presence in the region for hundreds of years.

The Pentagon and the SC National Guard might have something to say about this. No? So, does the overall size of Arabia matter in all the hoopla about “oh, we ONLY want so very little!”, as commonly seen on comparative maps of Israel vs. the rest of Arabia.

The claim that there is more legal authority for Israel than nations previously set up by mass displacement and force is threadbare if we look at history of morals and ethics. What went for 1500 does not go for 1947 and the force against hundreds of thousands of Arab Palestinians who’d lived there under VARIOUS regimes.

In any case, modern genetics and anthropology suggest strongly that the Jews evolved FROM the Hittites—they did not conquer them, nor the Canaanites, as the Bible said. Speaking of that, modern legal parlance has no brief of Biblical text as justification for nation-states that displace others. Or existing at all.

As to the notion

Those are the main points, I think.

Reply Hind Reftar says: August 13, 2011 at 7:17 pm

very true, i would know since I’m from Palestine myself. Very devasting for how long Israel has been fighting them; and Israel was lieng to the world too. They owned big named shops and stores and with the money they got, they gave it to the soldiers to buy weapons. WE need to spread the word. It’s just horrible.

Big fella says: August 27, 2011 at 3:51 am

The Belfor agreement was1st imposed to stop Zionist terrorist attacking Arab villages and massacing the inhabitians. These Zionist terrorist are refurred to in TH Lawances book the seven pillors of wisdom. It was intended to make peace and allow the Zionist a homeland but it was used as a wedge to expand the Zionist settlements. This was why the Zionist attempted a pact with Hitler whom they met with for 2 weeks in the lead up to WW2 The British blocked it as a breach of good faith and the terror began again. They have not changed thier views and want to return of all of ZION. They are racist and terrorist!

David says: September 6, 2011 at 3:41 am

It is a biblical issue. Read all of the prophets in the old testament and Romans 11 and Revelation and you will find that Israel will never be driven from their land again. And incidentally that is what Jacobs trouble and Armageddon is all about. All the Nations will be gathered together for judgment and will be punished for their treatment of Gods chosen. Just watch and see, you will see it with your own eyes and hopefully remember this post. It is very interesting.

Robert M. Siegfried says: October 2, 2011 at 4:54 pm

I have a hard time taking criticism from a Brit (half or whole) because the British colonial policies are responsible for so many current conflicts including Northern Irelan, India and of course the Middle East. Jews stand out in this regard for several reasons, the most important of which is that 2000 years after our homeland was taken over, we are still targeted for violence based on our ethnic identification. This is true today in Venezuela and in Europe where it is viewed as a form of protest by Arabs in Europe for Israeli policy of existing.

As far as ancestry is concerned, modern genetic suggest that we are middle eastern – I think that it is harder to pin it down more specifically than that.
Frankly, I would gladly give South Carolina back to the Catawbas. Perhaps your hatred of Israel is covering up your guilt for living on stolen land.

Brit says: December 1, 2012 at 3:39 am

So get your settlers off the Faulkland Island and return it to the Argentinians
I think there should be a forced removal and their land and home can be returned
And then talk about legitimacy

Cyril Reynolds says: August 15, 2011 at 2:28 am

Britain promised Palestine to both Jews and Arabs but the Jews had morer money. Duriung WW2 Jewish elements asked the Nazi Government of Germany for help. Soldiers of the Brtish Army Airborne Division who saved Jews in German Concentration Camp were later murdered by Palestinian Jews like at the King David Hotel. In 1946 30 percent of Palestine was Jewish and of these a half had been born in other countries. There will be no peace in the world as long as the USA supports a terrorist nation like Israel. I was in Palestine in 1946,

Reply James says: November 29, 2012 at 10:06 am

The reason behind the king David Hotel attack was the unwillingness of Britain to open the borders of Palestine to Jewish immigrants coming from concentration camps. Boats full of immigrants were returned by the British to Germany and do you know what happened? they were returned to the camps and murdered! Wasn’t it a good reason to bomb the British? of course yes! unless you have no good faith and plenty of unfairness & arrogance.
As to qualify Israel of terrorism, my best advice is for you to screw your head in place, MAYBE that will help.

Rebecca Fahlin says: August 16, 2011 at 2:48 am

If there was a country called Palestine and not just a terrority called Palestine before 1948, what was their currency, what did their the national flag look like, what did the seal of the ruler look like, etc, etc?! In other words where is the evidence!

Reply Joe Cox says: August 29, 2012 at 12:45 am

I would reword your comment to replace Palestine with Israel. At least there was an area labled Palestine on the maps before 1948 and after the fall of the Roman Empire. Israel cannot say the same. When the allies arbitrarily divided the old empires into new political “nations” at the end of the second world war, they were driven by immediate and selfish political concerns, not an enlightened view of history. Thus Israel was created and filled up with Germans and Poles and a few others who united with the small indigenous Jewish population to take and hold the land by whatever means required while the Kurds, who had no New York bankers to lobby for them were left without a country. Pakistan and the area now called Bangladesh were ripped out of India by the British to repay the Muslims for betraying Ghandi. Thus much of the conflict and violence we have lived with since the fall of Hitler has been the result of agreements made between England, the United States and Russia before 1950. Once rung, a bell cannot be unrung. The politicians will continue to say whatever they believe profits them while the violence has no forseeable end short of Armagedon which, by the way, is not far from Damascus.

pete says: October 12, 2012 at 5:04 pm

I know you would qoute some biblical b.s. about god giving Israel to the jews, if so where is the deed

James says: November 29, 2012 at 10:09 am

No evidence Rebecca,
only lies perpetrated against Israel and the Jewish people. Nothing new really since the Middle Ages!

jahan moreh says: August 24, 2011 at 9:02 pm

Cyril Reynolds writes: “Duriung [sp] WW2 Jewish elements asked the Nazi Government of Germany for help.”.

What evidence do you have to support this assertion? Who were these “Jewish elements”? What makes you believe that the Nazi government of Germany would do anything to help Jews as they were murdering 6,000,000 of them? You are entitled to your opinion, but not to your version of fact or history.

Here is a fact: in the 1930′s the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was a known collaborator with Hitler and personally responsible for the death of 12,000 Bosnian Jews. This is a published FACT in the book “Icon of Evil”. So, the next time anyone says that Palestinians, Arabs, or Moslems had NOTHING to do with the Holocaust, think of this FACT. The Arabs had many things to do with the Holocaust and their Grand Mufti (may he NOT rest in peace) is personally responsible for the death of at least 12,000 European Jews.

Reply diane arceneaux says: August 27, 2011 at 12:24 am

i agree with liz and wakefield. israel propaganda is so transparent if you pay attention to the rest of the news.

Michael K says: October 24, 2012 at 8:10 am

Mr Reynolds is referring to the activities of the Stern Gang, or Lehi, to use their Hebrew name. They were responsible for many of the most famous atrocities of the period, including, for example, the Deir Yassin massacre. Here’s an excerpt from the Wikpaedia entry on the Lehi:

“During World War II, Lehi initially sought alliance with Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, offering to fight alongside them against the British in return for the transfer of all Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe to Palestine. On the belief that Nazi Germany was a lesser enemy of the Jews than Britain, Lehi twice attempted to form an alliance with the Nazis.”

This is actually well-known, and is supported by Israeli historians.

Arnaldo Salles says: August 30, 2011 at 5:25 am

Foreign Office,
November 2nd, 1917.

Dear Lord Rothschild,

I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty’s Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Palestinian aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:
“His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Palestinian people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Palestinians communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Palestinians in any other country”.
I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Palestinian National Authority.

Yours sincerely
Arthur James Balfour

Reply Joe from Boston says: September 20, 2011 at 5:29 pm

Arnaldo Salles has a strange sense of humor.

The text of the letter of November 2nd 1917 says:

“His Majesty’s government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.”

Not even a good try. Just a clear expression of BIAS.

Bjarne Fogh says: September 4, 2011 at 12:39 am

To Arnaldo Salles:
The Balfour Declaration of 1917 (dated 2 November 1917) was a letter from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland.

His Majesty’s government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.”[1]

Reply Anne-Marie says: September 7, 2011 at 12:54 pm

Before you charge me with being a Jew, please note: My mother was a WASP of German, Norman English and Scottish origin. My father was Serbian Christian Orthodox. I am an aetheist. Just because you don’t like the history, doesn’t make the history a lie. Every word on this website is historically verifiable and true. You have let your hatred of Jews cloud your judgment. And, Liz, you are a garden-variety anti-semite. What facts do you have to back up your comments? That you choose to believe Arab revisions of history without question or facts to back it up is telling. And, there was once a country called Phillistia thousands of years ago, but they ceased to exist before the Roman Empire ruled the area. They were the historical enemy of the early Jews, so the Romans renamed all of the Jewish lands “Phillistia” to make a point to the increasingly rebellious Jews they had just expelled from their lands. Remnants of the Jewish people remained and have been there for thousands of years. They have no less right to a little patch of that land than the Muslims they shared the land with. Just like Muslim Indians decided to break away with Hindu India and formed the state of Pakistan. Because they wanted to govern themselves. Why do the Jews have any less of a right to govern themselves than the Pakistanis? Or the Palestinians who now call themselves “Jordanian? Or the Albanians who severed Kosovo from Serbia?” READ YOUR HISTORY!

Reply lithae says: November 25, 2012 at 3:09 pm

This is a great point, I also agree.
I came to this website because it seemed like it actually listed factual evidence and history instead of random opinions of biased people. All people are biased to a degree, but I know that I at least personally make an effort to question everything until I find quality facts from reliable sources, and I hope others do as well. I don’t think it matters too much what ethnicity people are who comment, although it could have affect on their biases to a small degree, but what culture they are from definitely will affect it to a larger degree, due to the fact that human personality develops based on several factors, and one of the large ones is culture, especially during the developmental years. So someone growing up in Israel will have a very different view and perception of the world than someone growing up in America. Especially considering the completely different stigmas of the areas.

I found it a little funny that people who support Palestine over Israel rarely seem to list facts, and only say that Israel murders and kills. Well, newsflash people, Palestine does the exact same stuff. They are both violent places. I would never visit either place for fear of getting raped or killed. I also do not support religion being a part of any government, ever. It should be separate at all times. I am unhappy with America in terms of sometimes trying to mesh the two, and I passionately protest that we should never do this. It does NOT work. I would start a revolt and many protests if something like this was trying to come about. I adamantly refuse religion as a ruling body. It only brings judgmentalism and violence. I do not and will never support Shariah law. If I lived in a religious nation-state, I would have been killed by now, especially being a strong woman who speaks my mind as well as being a firm supporter of the scientific method and factual evidence. Having a personal religion or spirituality is one thing, but it should be kept personal and not used as a control method.

Just because you’ve heard bad things about Israel, doesn’t mean Palestine is not doing the exact same thing, or worse. And vice versa. In fact both are terrible. Pretty much every country wars at some point or another. Thinking you’re above it just means you are out of touch. I realize that in this day and age a lot of us believe that war should not even happen, but it does anyway. Especially considering a lot of countries seem to be decades behind in terms of growth and education, and stuck in tragic situations. The worst part is that good intentions just tend to make stuff worse or cause more problems as side effects. Such as how people hate America for “putting their nose in others business”, but then they get angry because “America hasn’t helped at all”. I think the only reaction is to do what you feel is right, despite how others will react. Because they will be negative either way.

Some of this is very simple, Israel is basically our only ally in the middle east right now. Only stable ally anyway, we’re working on getting Egypt on our side, but they seem to be toying around with us right now. The riots earlier, which were planned ahead of time and not a direct result of that video (I believe the President of Egypt actually directly admitted this) everyone was talking about is a good example, even after it happened we still decided to hand over 450 million dollars of aid to help “restore” Egypt, or are trying to anyway. We’re basically bending over backwards for these guys, despite them killing our people and wanting us dead, just to avoid another war with the arab world.
I think it is more than generous just not to label them all enemies considering recent events, and the fact that the extremist muslim world in general tends to want us dead. I’ve been becoming increasingly bitter over the years as my interest in international relations and politics keeps growing.

Anne-Marie says: September 7, 2011 at 1:07 pm

Cyril, after all the atrocities and terrorism the British empire has inflicted on the world, a Brit calling another nation a “terrorist nation” is a little hypocritical don’t you think? All I can say about the British colonial presence in the world is Good Riddance! Sorry, am I wrong in assuming you are British?

Reply Mark Davis says: September 9, 2011 at 2:55 am

Anne-Marie says it all most eloquently. Garden variety anti-semites like Liz are always a mystery to me. Whilst I can understand the emotions however misplaced of an Arab Palestinian (as distinct from what were Jewish Palestinians) about what they think is a raw deal (I hasten to add that any raw deal they may think they have was entirely and remains entirely of their own making), but what drives someone to blindly hate Jews. Does she hate Tootsies over Hutus or one Somalian tribe over another without knowing anything about them. Why isn’t she angry about the 2000 Syrian civilians killed in the last few months by Assad or the thousands of Khurds killed by Turkey in Northern Iraq. Was she indoctrinated at a young age by anti-semitic parents or impressed by an equally ill-informed socialist boy friend along the way. Perhaps however it simply that she prefers to believe the lies and mis-truths that Arab media and even bigoted western media put out, After all she did quote Al Jazeera bastion of bi-partisan journalistic integrity as a source, which gives us a good idea of where her stance eminates from.

Reply Fred says: September 9, 2011 at 7:41 pm

So Liz H. says absolutely nothing negative about Jews–only calling into question the information on the site, which she correctly identifies as “propaganda”–but pro-Israel commenters, undeterred by the complete lack of evidence for the charge, slander her as a “garden variety anti-Semite” who “blindly hates Jews”. It’s a perfect example of the way in which groundless accusations of anti-Semitism are deployed as a tool by people like Anne-Marie and Mark to try to protect Israel from criticism. What they don’t realize is that every time they pull out their old standby slur in situations like this one where it’s so clearly unwarranted, they just demonstrate to more and more people how morally bankrupt and intellectually dishonest they are. The fact that they resort to these kinds of tactics rather than engaging in honest discussion and debate speaks volumes.

Thanks for the comment, Liz; you were spot on. More and more people are seeing through Israel’s hasbara (as embodied in sites like this one) to the plain fact of the racist treatment of Palestinians, and it’s only a matter of time before the tide turns decisively.

Reply Stosh says: September 27, 2011 at 7:23 pm

Fred, you’ve got it backwards. Liz H. calls the info on this site “propagandized BS” but then offers not a single rebuttal to any of the facts here. In addition, she bowdlerizes the term “anti-Semite” and is clearly unaware of its true origins. So add ignorance to malicious intent on her part.

As far as racism is concerned, you should know that an Arab state was set up in 1922 comprising over 75% of the original Palestinian Mandate, in which it is forbidden for any Jew to own land or become a citizen. That state is today called Jordan and its racist laws are still on the books. Today’s Palestinians have been open in expressing their desire for homeland that is also “judenrein”, as their envoy to the U.S. was quoted espousing such a position just a few weeks ago. By contrast, Arabs and other non-Jews make up about 20% of Israel’s population, are citizens with elected representatives in the Knesset, with the same rights as all other citizens. So who is the racist here?

And for the record, when Transjordan was hived off from the Mandate in 1922, there were several Jewish villages that were forced to move west of the Jordan River. That was better than the fate of the Jews living in Hebron during the Arab pogrom of 1929, or those living in the “West Bank” back in 1948, who were ethnically cleansed by the Arab Legion from east Jerusalem, Gush Etzion, etc. I guess its much easier to pretend to not be racist when you just get rid of all the “undesirables” up front, eh?

Ciumas says: November 19, 2012 at 2:01 pm

Stosh or everyone from here, tell me something! In a prison, any kind of prison , what its the propotrion in land between the guards and the imprisoned people? Somebody ? It it’s 5% for the guards and 95% for the inmates.
Now tell me what its the procentage in West Bank! Yes you guessed it, you are smart, it’s 5% for the israeli forces. They control , roads, water suplies, food suplies everything. So tell me its this a prison? There a lot of things to say, I could argue with all of u here about what its realli happening there, but it is usless. We can’t do nothing except to spread the word, the truth about palestine. I am sad but you sould be ashamed about what you have did to the people imprisoned.

John says: September 16, 2011 at 7:37 am

Why did the Arabs reject the original UN-plan from 1947?
Why do we see same things happen now after “The Arab Spring”?
Why do we see Turkey enchanting and blowing the fire in Egypt these days?

Simply because the Arab World want to blow the Jews into the sea as they always wanted too.

No surprise these nations said no to UN´s plan( United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 (II) Future Government of Palestine) Afghanistan, Cuba, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen.

Ups, same countries who still today want control over the region, weird no? No, its the same story and they will not give up until the Jewish State is gone.

Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army and the Muslim Brotherhood attacked in the war 1948 and just wait, with the situation in Egypt and when The Muslim Brotherhood win the election we will see more attacks on Israel.

Palestine could have had their own state in 1948, but they refused!! Backed up by the Arab League they thought they could have all, but at least Israel had courage, specially in 1967 where 230.000 troops were knocking their borders.

All you Anti-Israel, just be aware, the future is on stake and seems like the world is going to be the loser.

Reply Owen david Tshabalala says: January 21, 2012 at 3:38 pm

my fellow human beings and brothers and sisters in humanity, looking at the question of palistine and the question of occupation of palistine by the supposed israeli nation who claim that they are the true occupants of the land refered to as israel,we find that this people refering to themselves as jews mojority of them are europeans who dont have any historical link to palistine anthropologically,historicaly,culturally and traditionaly, this tells us that the creation of israel by the british colonial empire represent european colonial crime that the empire is famous. most of people who comment negativelly agaist palistinian are people who are either ignorent of the history of judaism and its people. the claim over palistine by jewish groups represent injustice,fraud and dicit,becuase they claim to be a nation and not a religious group, but actually they are a religious groups that comes from different nations if i am incorrect then provide then provide proof agaist my argument.

Will Gadall says: September 17, 2011 at 5:14 am

No UN, decision, no myth, nothing justify the slaughtering of a nation, to establish another because they belong to a religion that lived there 3 thousands years ago! claiming to be the descendants of the original Jewish Semites! Which is known to be a fabricated lie, the eastern European Jews came from the dissolved old Khazar kingdom which converted to Judaism in the 10 century! the real descendants of the historical Israelite are the Palestinians, read Shlomo Sands’s The invention of the Jewish people, I know this is not going to be published, because this is the truth that any independent researcher will find.

Reply Stosh says: September 27, 2011 at 7:48 pm

You discredit yourself with that Khazar nonsense. If the Ashkenazi (central and east European) Jews were descendants of the Khazars (a Turkic tribe), why is it that Yiddish, the language they spoke, is derived from medieval German with not a trace of Turkish words, grammar, etc.? On the other hand, there are plenty of Hebrew words in it and even a smattering of Slavic. Why was that language written with the Aramaic letters (Aramaic being the lingua franca of the Levant 2000 years ago). And why is it that DNA tests showed that the group of people most closely related to Ashkenazi Jews are the Sephardi Jews, who went around the Mediterranean by an entirely different route over those 2000 years. Finally, the presence among the Ashkenazim of kohens (descendants of the Jewish priests) and levites totally demolishes that theory, since none of those would have been present among the Khazars. The kohens, by the way, have been shown to share a DNA marker passed down through the male line that appears to have originated in the Near East about 3000 years ago.

Shlomo Sands? He’s a paskudyak. And you can look it up.

Husni says: September 18, 2011 at 5:17 am

I can’t believe that some think that this is right, seriously if you want to know a bit of Palestine’s history your going to have to go back 3000 years ago! Not 100 years+ I’m a Palestanian and I know

Reply Stosh says: September 27, 2011 at 8:02 pm

You’re right. 3000 years ago was when King David conquered Jerusalem and made it the capital of Israel. There has been a Jewish presence in the land ever since, in spite of foreign occupiers like the Romans, the Arabs, the Turks and the British. That presence, and 1000 years of persecution of Jews in both Christian and Muslim lands are the basis of moral right of the Jewish people to their own state in the land that the Romans named “Palestine”.

steff says: September 19, 2011 at 10:49 am

Well well well, the jews are at it again, if u look back in history u will see its the palestinians who own the land what the jews did to them was disgusting. Why arnt Israel been held for war crimes against humanity.And most of the jews who have settled there are from America n they call it there home land. Im just stating the historicall facts.

Reply abumiz says: September 21, 2011 at 10:08 pm

How dare you calling your propaganda as “Palestine Facts”?!! You should call it apartheid Israel “Facts” and lies, and the Zionists criminals themselves, like: Herzl, Gurion, Weismann, Jabotinsky, Weitz, Ruppin, Ussishkin, Smilansky, Zuchovitzky, Zangwill, Epstein…. who started the movement and helped founding this apartheid and racist state in Palestine can give you the real facts about their crimes and ethnic cleansing.

In 1891 Ahad Ha’Am wrote: “We abroad are used to believe the Eretz Yisrael is now almost totally desolate, a desert that is not sowed. But in truth that is not the case. Throughout the country it is difficult to find fields that are not sowed. Only sand dunes and stony mountains are not cultivated.” (Righteous Victims, p. 42)

Israel Zangwill, who had visited Palestine in 1897: “Palestine proper has already its inhabitants. The pashalik of Jerusalem is already twice as thickly populated as the United States, having fifty-two souls to the square mile, and not 25% of them Jews ….. We must be prepared either to drive out by the sword the Arab tribes in possession as our forefathers did or to grapple with the problem of a large alien population, mostly Mohammedan and accustomed for centuries to despise us.” (Expulsion Of The Palestinians, p. 7- 10, and Righteous Victims, p. 140)

And the Russian racist Ze’ev Jabotinsky advocated the colonization of Palestine under the protection of arms regardless of the Palestinian people’s objections. He stated in 1925:
“Zionist colonization, even the most restricted, must either be terminated or carried out in defiance of the will of the native population. This colonization can, therefore, continue and develop under the protection of a force independent of the local population –an iron wall which the native population cannot break through. This is, in to, our policy towards the Arabs. To formulate it any other way would be hypocrisy.” (Expulsion Of The Palestinians, p. 28)
The same racist wrote in an essay, titled “The Iron Law”, explaining how Zionist colonization of Palestine should be done. He wrote: “If you wish to colonize a land in which people are already living, you must provide a garrison for the land, or find a benefactor who will maintain the garrison on your behalf. … Zionism is a colonizing adventure and, therefore, it stands or falls on the question of armed forces.” (Expulsion Of The Palestinians, p. 45)
He also wrote: “There is no choice: the Arabs must make room for the Jews of Eretz Israel. If it was possible to transfer the Baltic peoples, it’s also possible to move the Palestinian Arabs.” (Expulsion Of The Palestinians, p. 29)
As you see the Zionists didn’t have problem talking about their racist colonial settler project!

As you see the Zionists didn’t have problem calling their racist project as a colonial settler project, but ignorant like yourself says otherwise!!

Here is another criminal explains the Zionist story, Ben Gurion who was an atheist and knew that the myth of 2000 years is plain legend but he didn’t mind “believing” in “god promised land”, a typical Zionist hypocrite, he said:
“Why should the Arabs make peace? If I was an Arab leader I would never make terms with Israel. That is natural: we have taken their country. Sure, God promised it to us, but what does that matter to them? Our God is not theirs. We come from Israel, it’s true, but two thousand years ago, and what is that to them? There has been anti-Semitism the Nazis, Hitler, Auschwitz, but was that their fault? They only see one thing: we have come here and stolen their country. Why should they accept that? They may perhaps forget in one or two generations’ time, but for the moment there is no chance. So it’s simple: we have to stay strong and maintain a powerful army. Our whole policy is there. Otherwise the Arabs will wipes us out”.
“But how can you sleep with that prospect in mind,” I broke in, “and be Prime Minister of Israel too?”
Who says I sleep? he answered simply. (The Jewish Paradox by Nahum Goldman, p. 99).
BTW Gurion was an atheist, and knew that the myth of 2000 years is plain legend but he didn’t mind accepting “god promised land”, a typical Zionist hypocrite. Also you need to check the agreement between the Nazis and the Zionists to transfer European Jews into Palestine, and later the Zionist plan to transfer the Arab natives out of their land, Plan Dalet.

Moshe Dayan as quoted in Haaretz, 4 April 1969: “Jewish villages were built in the place of Arab villages. You do not even know the names of these Arab villages, and I do not blame you because geography books no longer exist, not only do the books not exist, the Arab villages are not there either. Nahlal arose in the place of Mahlul; Kibbutz Gvat in the place of Jibta; Kibbutz Sarid in the place of Huneifis; and Kefar Yehushu’a in the place of Tal al-Shuman. There is not one single place built in this country that did not have a former Arab population.”

Moshe Dayan said in 1956, just 8 years after Al Nakba, and before PLO or Hamas even existed: “Let us not today fling accusation at the murderers. What cause have we to complain about their fierce hatred to us? For eight years now, they sit in their refugee camps in Gaza, and before their eyes we turn into our homestead the land and villages in which they and their forefathers have lived.” -Iron Wall.

It is the occupation, stupid.

Learn from history, apartheid south Africa, which started in the same time as apartheid Israel, had its racist supporters who used “holy” books to steal the natives’ land and properties while calling them “terrorists” and “savages”, and it had nukes like apartheid Israel, but it is history now, and Mandela, who knows apartheid very well and called the Israeli occupation state as an apartheid, became a president in his own country and homeland, and the same with Palestine, the colonial settlers from Russia and Moldavia, like the racist thug Lieberman, don’t belong to Palestine and not any of the Zionists who started the movement belong to Palestine, check out their names and accents!!!

Nothing last for ever, especially a rotten racist apartheid.

Reply Chris says: September 22, 2011 at 7:26 am

Perhapes Turkey should give Instanbul back to the Greeks. Maybe Poland should give Prussia back to Germany. We could go on and on throughout history. The Arabs won that land by conquest. And by conquest they lost it!
The Holy Mount was crafter by Jews 3-4000 yrs ago. To claim it is Arab and Muslim is wrong
It is that simple

Reply iwolfman says: September 24, 2011 at 4:43 pm

I urge the owners of this website to make themselves and their affiliations known. By refusing to do so, you raise questions about your real intent, and make the most open-minded of visitors doubt the veracity of your content.

Reply admin says: September 26, 2011 at 7:10 am

Dear iwolfman,

We, at Palestinefacts.org just manage the website from a technical point of view. All the comments that come in are from the visitors and we only act as moderators by removing spam and hate comments. We do not influence the content in any way. By remaining anonymous we ensure that we do not get biased comments.

Thank you.

A_Nonny_Mouse says: September 24, 2011 at 10:21 pm

I agree with Chris, Sept 22

“To the victor go the spoils”.

The Ottoman Empire sided with Germany in WWI. Germany lost; the British and French won, the Ottoman Empire fell. The League of Nations in 1920 gave France mandates over Syria and Lebanon, and gave Britain mandates over Mesopotamia and Palestine; in 1922 the Palestinian mandate was sub-divided to create Transjordan, leaving only about 22% of the original Palestinian Mandate as territory from which a Jewish national homeland was to be created.

The rest, as they say, is history.

Reply TMG says: January 21, 2012 at 2:35 pm

“To the victor go the spoils” Maybe it wasn’t victory since there is still unrest there over 60 years later with out much improvement. A two state solution is the only answer I can see as of now. You can’t have a bunch of displaced Israelies. But Israel needs to return the occupied lands the are continuing to build settlements on. Thumbing their nose at the US and Britain because this was the agreed upon land that the Palestinians were to live on.

It almost looks like the segregated south in the Jim Crow era. No one whites wanted blacks in their neighborhood, schools, hospitals, grocery stores, etc. Terrorized them, bombed them, lynched them, created laws to oppress them in hopes that they would go away and live somewhere else. Seems like this is what Israel wants. Palestinians to go away when they have a right to the land they have lived on for thousands of years. Palestinians are not European transplants. They are the locals.

Julia says: September 25, 2011 at 3:13 am

Honestly I don’t know much about the whole situation, but if there’s one thing I’ve learned in life is that it takes two to fight a war. Both parties are at fault, and none of the comments have really bothered to mention that. Which to me is the most disappointing thing of all.

Maybe if everyone could just admit they were wrong, then maybe, just maybe we could come up with a solution civilly?

( “Oh sorry, I forgot! Both states are too tied up in their own religions -meaning the radicals are running the show. I guess coming up with a civil solution is impossible.” -cynical me. )

But hey! Here’s a suggestion! Instead of arguing over who is right and who is wrong, how about throwing some ideas on how to fix the problem?

Reply Jacinta Harris says: September 27, 2011 at 11:16 pm

Julia I am right there with you. The inference that the Jews are wanting to build a Zion nation is a sad misrepresentation at best. Perhaps they simply have lost the meaning of what Zion is all about. Zion was the name given by God to Enoch’s city which, because of their righteousness, was taken up into Heaven. To establish a Zion community all the people have to be of “one heart and one mind” meaning one in purpose and “dwell in righteousness” which means according to the laws of God.

Whilst ever anyone uses weapons of any description they are oppressors and the oppressed will fight against them.

As you state – unless they put their religions aside and begin to look at each other as neighbours and not enemies – they will never achieve a Zionist community.

When Jesus taught the well known parable of the good Samaritan, he knew what he was saying! All would do well to remember that the Jews and Samaritans were enemies – yet it was not until a humble Samaritan assisted the wounded Jew that anything constructive was done – and guess what? Loving they neighbour is not just a Christian thing!

So, in conclusion – I declare to all those who read this – no matter what religion there is one commandment we all have in common – love thy neighbour as thyself. I guess until people are willing to put aside their hatred and suspicion, Zion will never be established and neighbour will continue to fight against neighbour. Truly the words of Isaiah are coming true – there is no mystery here – they are coming true because people are blindly following whatever malice they choose. They hate their neighbour and therefore hate themselves. I guess they don’t sleep well at night either.

Sigh. Everyone should watch “The Grinch who stole Christmas”.

abumiz says: September 29, 2011 at 5:20 am

Read about the One Secular Democratic State solution. A state for all its citizens regardless of their religions, and backgrounds. That doesn’t work with the Zionists ideology who want to have Palestine as a “Jewish state”.
Also if you don’t know much about the situation, educate yourself about some basic history facts, and study a little bit about colonialism, Zionism, and the history of the region, because you are clearly mixing between European Zionist colonial settlers and the Arab natives population of Palestine which include Arab Jews, Christians, Muslims and non religious groups.

Also if you are interested of a solution find out first if your state is involved or assisting the Israeli apartheid state. And ask you government to stop aiding racist apartheid. Many European states, alongside, US, and Canada aided the racist colonial settlers in South Africa and their racist regime there, and used to call Mandela as a “terrorist”.
And to make it simple for you, when Mandela, who knows about apartheid very well, calls the Israeli occupation state as an apartheid, you need to stop and think about it, plus you already said that you don’t know much about the situation so don’t add misleading statement like: “Both parties are at fault” and make both, the occupier colonial settler and the native as equal in the crime, forgetting that Palestinians didn’t force themselves on the Russian and European colonial settlers who seek their “god promise land” it is the other way around, or maybe the Palestinians on their own wanted to be in refugee camps and the civilized colonial settlers had nothing to deal with it!!!
I already posted a comment before yours with documented quotes from the Zionist criminals themselves, they talked openly about their colonization to Palestine, go back and read them and try to answer to their racist ideology.

And here is what Mandela had to say, so you don’t need to say anymore that no body told me about apartheid Israel: “The Palestinian state cannot be the by-product of the Jewish state, just in order to keep the Jewish purity of Israel. Israel’s racial discrimination is daily life of most Palestinians. Since Israel is a Jewish state, Israeli Jews are able to accrue special rights which non-Jews cannot do. Palestinian Arabs have no place in a “Jewish” state.
Apartheid is a crime against humanity. Israel has deprived millions of Palestinians of their liberty and property. It has perpetuated a system of gross racial discrimination and inequality. It has systematically incarcerated and tortured thousands of Palestinians, contrary to the rules of international law. It has, in particular, waged a war against a civilian population, in particular children.” From a letter from Nelson Mandela to Thomas Friedman.

See The Zionist Story documentary, you can find the full documentary on youtube and it is made by an ex Israeli soldier who served in the Israeli occupation forces.

Hala says: December 12, 2011 at 1:41 pm

Have you ever heard an israeli official admit that they are wrong. To them the Palestinians are always and the only ones at fault. If it wasn’t for the support and bullying of the United States and some europian countries, israel would have not been so strong. But you know what, those 22 useless arab states could have changed things a lot if they have known how to bargain better for their oil. Complete stupidity on their part.

kim says: February 15, 2012 at 12:40 am

Umm Owen you ruin your entire argument through sheer ignorance. The very uniqueness of “Jews” is that are a race and a religion and strive to be a nationality while Palestinians historically have been many various races, nationalities and religions.

What is astounding is the irrelevance of your statements.

Julia, yes you are correct, it is in the hands of the radicals at the expense of the common people on both sides however, it is much more than religious fervor and much more international intrigue.

Mike says: September 28, 2011 at 7:17 pm

Julia had a great comment. We can delve into the history and morality of zionism and israel all we want, but that does nothing to solve the problem. The fact of the matter is, there are two peoples claiming one land today, and there is legitimacy of both claims. The best answer to this problem is to divide the land, as the UN rightly reasoned in 1947. Unfortunately, the palestinians rejected that, and continue to reject it to this day. They have to give up the fantasy that israel is a temporary presence (no matter how israel allegedly came into being, whether through sin or through good), and sit down and make peace with it. That includes giving up the fictitious “right of return.” All we hear about today from palestinians, and their supposedly more palestinian western friends (who are really just israel-haters) is that there needs to be “justice.” This is code for the end of israel. I’m sorry guys, but that’s a non-starter.

Reply abumiz says: October 1, 2011 at 5:12 am

“it’s also important to point out that when zionism was initiated, there was no concept of palestinians, jordanians, lebanese, or any other type of contemporary arab nationality.”
My respond to this pathetic history and typical Zionist “facts”, that they are Arabs and the natives of the land including Arab Jews, and Christians, but the Zionists and based on their own documented confessions, which you ignored, wanted to have a “Jewish state” for European Jews in Palestine, and expel the Arab natives, See Plan Dalet.

Also it is up to the Arabs to call themselves what ever they want to based on their lands, provinces’ names, like Syria or Palestine, which been used for couple thousands of years, and the Zionist colonial settlers from Moldavia, Russia. Lithuania, US, Canada, Germany, Poland, England…. have legitimate claims in Palestine as much as the Indian Muslims have legitimate claims in Saudi Arabia, and these colonial settler thieves have no right to plan any thing in land doesn’t belong to them, but European racist colonialists had no respect for the natives, and their are still racists repeat the same old lies, and even dare to fabricate the natives’ history or even claim that they never existed!! No far back the apartheid of south Africa ended, the sister apartheid state to apartheid Israel.

Your problem, as any other Zionist, you can not see the racist core of your Zionist Ideology, and from history we can see that it was not a new thing, it is no different then the French colonialists in Algeria, who claims that Algeria is part of France, or the racist colonial settlers in south Africa, and again when Mandela calls the Israeli occupation state as an apartheid, Zionist propagandists need to zip it.

Also instead of agreeing with Julia who was honest about her little knowledge, just try to answer to the points I mentioned and try to back up your “facts” with some references, especially when stating that “The arabs were given self-determination on 99% of the territory on which they were the majority.” where did you get your info? And who beside the Arabs would have the right to give them rights or to govern themselves and their lands, your Zionists colonialists, like the Hungarian Herzl, the Russian Jabotinsky, or the other colonialists, the Brits and the French?!!!

And when you say: “it is definitely not worth spending generations fighting over.” again Ben Gurion, the criminal himself answered to your logic long time ago, and he also hoped the Arab would forget the Zionists’ theft, he said: “Why should the Arabs make peace? If I was an Arab leader I would never make terms with Israel. That is natural: we have taken their country. Sure, God promised it to us, but what does that matter to them? Our God is not theirs. We come from Israel, it’s true, but two thousand years ago, and what is that to them? There has been anti-Semitism the Nazis, Hitler, Auschwitz, but was that their fault? They only see one thing: we have come here and stolen their country. Why should they accept that? They may perhaps forget in one or two generations’ time, but for the moment there is no chance. So it’s simple: we have to stay strong and maintain a powerful army. Our whole policy is there. Otherwise the Arabs will wipes us out”.
“But how can you sleep with that prospect in mind,” I broke in, “and be Prime Minister of Israel too?”
Who says I sleep? he answered simply.” (The Jewish Paradox by Nahum Goldman, p. 99).

Regarding the refugees camps, it is apartheid Israel who created the refugees issue but based on the stupid logic of the Zionists, their Arab brothers need to take care of them, and no body need to talk about the Israeli occupation state and its documented ethnic cleansing crimes, and by the way the apartheid own archive tell enough about these crimes, also don’t forget that the other Arab states are the result of the European colonizations, and they are stil struggling against, the uprising in Egypt was not only against Mubarak, the puppet, but mainly against the US who maintains this apartheid among the Arabs, while controlling their resources of the region, simply if it were up to the Arabs, they won’t be 22 carved states, but again your logic is part of this racist colonial mind, and you seem didn’t learn from history.

Owen david Tshabalala says: December 27, 2011 at 7:48 am

mike u need to be corrected there are no two people claiming the land, please read,your argument does not make sense,because jews are not like palistinians because they are nor a one race or one ethnic group but religious group like any other groups but palistinians are an ethnic group sharing common culture,history,customs and with different religions, but this is not a case to jews they dont share the same history,language and customs. on this note we have to undestand that the creation of israel was a gross injustice by the colonial powers. on the other hand of the argument of holocust we all know that eouropean jews suffred in the hands of a european dectator then this tell us that european jews were supposed to be given part of europe not the middle east. bernard ury you must read the proper history of the middle east before you make statement that are full of fallacy and error.

Mike says: September 28, 2011 at 7:38 pm

it’s also important to point out that when zionism was initiated, there was no concept of palestinians, jordanians, lebanese, or any other type of contemporary arab nationality. there was just one big giant territory populated mainly, but not exclusively by arabs. The arabs were given self-determination on 99% of the territory on which they were the majority. It was decided that self-determination would be granted to another people on one tiny little strip of land that was important to them. So if this land was “stolen” as the arabs allege, it is definitely not worth spending generations fighting over. However, instead of accepting this fate, the arabs have chosen to manufacture a palestinian identity, and to keep palestinian “refugees” in disgusting camps in their own countries, in the hopes of prolonging the conflict.

Reply sami says: October 16, 2012 at 3:26 pm

Mike

The arabs had 100% of the land inthe middle east and then someone from europe decided to give 1% to somebody else and you are saying that its ok to steal 1% of the land because its just 1%, what right does anyone have to do that?

The people that lived there that are now refugees should be allowed to go home and be compensated for the 60 years that they have had to live in refugee camps. The west bank and Jerusalem should be incorporated into Israel (they are controlled by Israel now anyway) and all people, no matter of religion, colour etc should be given the right to vote, Israel would then be a truly democratic state and one that the world could look up to instead of the apartheid state you have today. Over 90% of the worlds population is against Israel in its current format and it survival is through the support of the US, should it lose that support (nothing lasts forever) then Israel will either cease to be a Jewish state or the world will cease to exist as we know it today.

Ethics says: October 13, 2011 at 9:57 am

Mike, there are lies and flasehoods on BOTH sides so there needs to be questioning and discusion on facts.

The problems wih your argument is that you do not have an argument (statement) rather you appear to be regergitating sound-bites of data thus coming across as biased and/or ill-informed. For example, it is not “the little strip of land” that was given to the protestors at the time by the British that is the cause for the current unrest and mistrust, it is the expansion of this original area and the Isreali control of (non-military) supplies that is the problem eg: this is why they are called the “Occupied Territories” (this means an area of land occupied by an agressor).

Irrespective of the position of others on this, you seem to be wanting to stand on one or other side as a reason to flail and beat the ‘enemy’ without having a true appreciation of the situation, or indeed needing it. I can see you doing exactly the same under another flag – whichever gives you the most mileage.

Reply Ethics says: October 13, 2011 at 10:19 am

And to Abumiz, the land was Jewish a long way back, yes they “lost” it as did many others, but they managed to “gain” it back when the whole world was in termoil. And as in my reply to Mike, they should be resptected and be allowed to retain the ORIGINAL land given to them. There needs to be focus and maturity in this situation. It is agreed, Isreal and its government are the source and cause of many atrocites but using inflamatory language make you appear in the same form as the zealots you have issue with.

Isreal needs to be brought to account and the only effective way will be to record and present these atrocities on the world stage. ALL countries have a politcal goal, there is no affiliation unless there is political gain. If more of the atrocities could be shown (without retaliation) the peole of the world would stand up and say enough – hey, there is even a growing number of Isrealis that abhore the actions of their own Govt. and with enough evidence even the bullying, gun totin’ USA would step back and let there be reconcilliation.

Be strong, be true but take care you do not fall into the same trap.

Reply YASSIR ARAFT says: April 10, 2012 at 7:05 am

The Jews that you are talking about were never there history only shows Canaanites which were Palestinians and black non Zionist Jews which were called Israelite so get your facts straight.

Mike says: October 13, 2011 at 11:17 pm

It is amazing to me, how israel, the most tolerant, pluralistic state in the entire middle east, and zionism, one of the most liberal ideological movements in the history of humanity, are consistently maligned by those claiming to be “anti-racist.” Tell me, are the palestinians racist because their national charter demands a “palestinian ARAB state” that is part of the greater “arab nation?” What about all the non-arabs who live in the region? Please spare me the “zionism is racism” claim. States have a right to have ethnic identities, especially when that ethnic identity has been the cause of terrible persecution, as is the case with Jewish ethnic identity. The Jews have a right to have a homeland of their own, provided they give equal rights to non-jews living in it, as they do. The arabs also have a right to have a homeland of their own, and currently they have 22 such homelands. Jews have one. And it just so happens that that Jewish homeland is the ONLY country in the middle east where arabs are truly free. There are arabs in the israeli knesset, arabs in the israeli army, arabs on the israeli supreme court, and even a few years ago there was an arab “Miss Israel.” So get over this israel is “racist” claim. In addition, get over this idea that israel was created for “european” jews. Modern political zionism may have been started by jews living in europe, but israel is for ALL jews. More than half of israel’s jewish population today is made up of Jews from arab and persian lands in the middle east. The real racism in the middle east is arab racism against jews. Why is it that in israel, the jewish state, there are 1.5 million arabs, but in all 22 arab countries, you’d be hard-pressed to even find 1000 Jews.

Reply Mick says: November 16, 2011 at 3:42 am

Mike, what planet do you live on? Your comment that Israel is the only country in the Middle East where Arabs are truly free is so patently absurd that it’s insulting. Israel is the ONLY country that has a system of roads that are for Jews only, and if an Arab has the temerity to use them is liable to serve a mandatory 6 months in prison, and this is but one example of the racist policies that the Israeli Government uses to persecute the Palestinian people. South Africa was rightly considered an international pariah for this same sort of treatment of black Africans, and the ONLY reason that Israel is not treated the same way is the fear in the minds of other counties of the hysterical cries of “Anti-Semitism” that inevitably follow any criticism. Perhaps you should try to move around Israel with Palestinian ID papers and see how you are treated.

Tom Paris says: November 1, 2011 at 10:58 am

Could you please provide a contact for the webmaster. Your website seems very interesting and certainly for any intelligent discourse on any topic you need to base it on facts, not opinion. I would be interested to know who the moderators are (not necessarily your identities) but your motivations, qualifications, prejudices, etc.(Often websites contain this kind of info: “Who We Are”.) I am not interested in wasting my time with either a pro-Palestinian or a pro-Israel web site, although I would be very interested in a web site that is trying to establish fact from fiction and opinion. After a quick reading of above commentary it would appear that this site is not moderated by a pro-Zionist outfit since there seems to a lot of negative commentary regarding your site.

Reply admin says: November 1, 2011 at 11:36 am

Dear Tom

You are welcome to contact us at sara@palestinefacts.org. We try to be as neutral as possible. You can also interact with us at http://www.facebook.com/PalestineFacts.

Grace Golden says: November 2, 2011 at 2:18 pm

this is a great website for facts and im learning this in socila studies now

Reply R Hawk says: October 2, 2012 at 7:24 am

All of these negative comments are just bs. Most are Muslims trying to once again defame the rightful existence of the State of Israel. It must be nice to live in a world where you just ignore history and make up your own facts. Even the PLO and terrorist elements of the so called Palestinians – which are not even a real people – admit there was no such thing as Palestine but used it successfully to drum up the Islamic support to fight Israel and gain support for their racist intent to commit genocide against Jews. It all goes back to the issue of legitimacy stemming from the birth of Ishmael. As we all know, Ismael’s mother was not Abraham’s wife but her hand maiden/servant. Nothing is going to overcome that as it is the basis and start of it all. The bible is clear and even Judaism and Islam have prophecies similar to armagedeon, There is no way to appease the Islamic people that hate Israel. Even if they stopped settling,agreed to the 1947 borders, – Jerusalem is the next issue and then what comes from the original Temple mound and that Muslims purposely built the Dome there to disrespect the Jews and state their dominance over them. Idiots here are spreading lies in support of their Islamic jiahadist goals – it is not about a homeland and wanting to live in peace. They will never offer peace and they have proven this by repeatedly engaging in warfare, threats, and terrorism against the Jewish people, then trying to deflect their evil ways upon the Israelis. Sickening.

A R omen says: November 3, 2011 at 11:52 am

This post has been moved to palestine-facts.blogspot.com

Reply Victoria says: December 1, 2011 at 3:19 pm

Is it possible to have to name of the author of this site so I can reference them?

Reply admin says: December 7, 2011 at 9:01 am

Hi Victoria,

You can quote me. Sara Jones. I manage this site.

Thanks!

Joe says: December 7, 2011 at 2:40 am

For the life of me, why is so hard for 2 humans to live side by side in 2011 regardless of the biblical history, why can’t 1 side just give up land for the peace of unborn future generation? Many have died in the course of fighting for statehood, land, border, right to existence, we fight for a land that we eventual get buried in, I just want peace between the Isrealis and the Palestenians.

Reply arabi says: December 9, 2011 at 12:20 am

i respect what u say can u accept some body take ur body leave in ur home steel the love of ur mum and say that he is better than u.So it’s not quastion of land however it’s palestine: no thing for every thing i hope to understand what i mean thank u Joe

Sirrom says: December 11, 2011 at 4:37 am

“Why can’t 1 side just give up land for the peace of unborn future generations”?

I believe Benjamin Netanyahu said it best during a speech that “if the Arabs lay down their arms there will be no more war, but if Israel lays down its weapons there would be no more Israel.”

Israel has given up enough. The Palastinians have avoided any direct talks with Israel. Israel could give all of her land to the Palestinians and still the Palestinians, and other Arab countries, would want to kill them.

Owen david Tshabalala says: December 27, 2011 at 7:37 am

my friends the creation of israel as a state in 1948 represented a pattern of land stilling that european were used to do, it is not accepted that one people by the help of corrupt empire like the western colonial masters still land of palistinians by lies ,decit,fraued and military conquest. the history of the jewish people is mark by historical fraud , that jews are a race or nation if jews are anation why do they come from different racial and ethnic groups?. most of this jewish groups anthropologicaly they are not of semitic stock.

R Hawk says: October 2, 2012 at 7:27 am

Really? you cannot be that naive.The Israelis would be slaugtered – they have to have some ability to protect themselves. If you give in an inch they demand a mile. It is not about some land – those offers have been rejected time and time again. What they want is too wipe Israel off the earth and their holy books call for it.

John says: December 10, 2011 at 7:06 pm

As painful as it is to see people present arguments that are absent a factual basis, it is even more painful to see the English language butchered. Lack of proper syntax, a lack of spelling…for the sake of all that is good and holy, people, why would anyone accept an argument that is presented in such a manner?

btw Stosh, how is it that if an Arab is a semite, those who hate him are not anti-Semitic?

Joe from Boston…If your family was living on land for 50 generations, why would you want to share it with a group of people who were having a homeland invented for them, to quote Newt Gingrich? Of course the Jews accepted the proposal; they were getting something. The Palestinians were losing something, actually having it stolen from them. There is no do-over in play here. And if you accept the fact that Britain was in a position to dictate policy to anyone, would you accept China dictating policy to America?

Reply Larry says: December 14, 2011 at 1:30 pm

John, interesting commentary. I agree that the Palestinian inhabitants were robbed and displaced. I feel for them but there are two things at play here. One thing is the factual definitive, the fact that Palestine was not a country/nation but an area and Israel as a nation was created with the worlds approval albeit not 100 percent. The second thing to deal with is the injustice that was forced upon the settlers/inhabitants of the Palestine area when they were forced out and lost their possessions.
A similar argument can be used to describe many nations today and how they were conquered peoples at one time or another. The young nation of America displaced many peoples, Mexicans and Indians mostly.
I guess the question I ask is since we all pretty much agree that a group of people were wronged in their forced displacement is was there ever any compensation? All the fighting that took place after the fact is a separate issue. Since we(world) agreed with Britain either implicitly or complicitly, we should find out who was robbed and compensate them. The other issues are emotional.

Miriam says: January 24, 2012 at 5:27 am

GOD gave Israel to the Jews. Never was their a Palestinian people, Yes, Arabs did lived in Palestine among the Jewish, however, that does not make Arabs Palestinians. Israel belongs to the Jewish People GODS gift to them.

Let the Arabs go live in Jordan where they belong with their people. This is not about not having a home, this is about hating the Jewish people as they always have.

Israel was given to the Jewish people by GOD what more do you need to know. Palestine is a place not a people, the people who call themselves Palestinians are ARABS and need to go home to JORDAN and beyond.

Bernard Ury says: December 11, 2011 at 7:07 pm

Do the Arabs have a right to a land of their own? Yes, they do, just as do other ethnic or national groups. Matter of fact, there is not just one Arab land but 21 of them (not including Palestine), covering 5,120,000 square miles and home to 345,840,398 Arabs.

Do the Jews have a right to a land of their own? Right now there is just one Jewish land — Israel — covering 8,000 square miles and home to 5,702,700 Jews (plus 1,423,500 Arabs). Seems proper that this little smidgen of land could be left to the Jews.

If the Jews didn’t have Israel, where would they go for a land of their own? No where in the world.

But if the Arabs in Palestine (the West Bank) had to leave — and so far no one is asking them to — they have a choice of 21 Arab lands to go to.

Yes, there are all sorts of claims to homes, buildings, farms, businesses, etc. But who besides the Jews (and some friends here and there) thought that these was much of an issue when the Jews were virtually exterminated in Eastern Europe during World War II.

The Jews said, “Yes, we share the land with the Arabs,” when the United Nations partitioned the land. But the Arabs (not just the Palestinians) said, “No,” and went to war with the Jews. The Arabs lost their chance then; they tried war again two more times and lost twice. Why can’t 345,840,398 Arabs live in peace and let 7,116,200 Israeli Jews live in peace, too?

Reply Mohamed Wazit says: December 14, 2011 at 1:43 am

the torah CLEARLY states that Jews are forbidden to have their own state, but I guess I can understand that no one really respects their religion anymore(including me).

So, to see why the Arabs hate the Jews, you have to look at what they have been taught ever since they were small. The Arabs are brainwashed and think all Jews are bad, just like how the KKK brainwashes their children saying those who aren’t white are inferior. That’s the nature of humans, we just do what we were told when we were kids.

Just like how the south has many hate groups, so does the Arab world. You can’t really force them to change their minds, just like how the KKK will never change their minds.

But besides the point, it doesn’t give Israel any rights to claim a part of land theirs. If you look through history, the Romans have talked about Palestine, and Palestine is even mentioned in the bible, do they not have rights to their own lands?

Ata says: December 19, 2011 at 2:13 pm

There are just over 18 million Jews in the US. There are more Jews in America than any other country. The US donates and supports the Jews in everything or by the matter of fact the Jews run and own all America so why don’t we give them America? another 7 millions is nothing to US and they can in peace forever and America does not have to waste money by sending it to Israel. at least the Jews will pay the US taxes for once!!!

phillips says: December 21, 2011 at 10:24 pm

How can you talk of a nation of Jews and then in the same breath talk about an Arab nation, surely the topic is over the Israeli encroachment of Palestinian land, The Brits in the 1820s offered farms to poor British people who ended up being in the frontline of the Xhosa tribes, Havnt the Israelis taken a leaf from the Brits and invited every poor eastern block Jew a home in the promised land …and put them in compounds (probably built with United States IN American $$s) on Palestinian land?

mrs real says: December 23, 2011 at 12:19 pm

because arabs have an unreasonable innate hatred of jews….you have to live among both sides for a while to realise this but it is sadly true….let us not forget whose side the arabs of this area were on in WW2 – they were allied with the nazis….there are many muslim arabs happily living and working in israel – no one mentions this – who have a way better life and way better rights than the arabs living in the rest of the middle east…

Jonathan says: January 24, 2012 at 1:07 pm

In reply to Mr. Mohamed Wazit below (some coding error or some such is preventing me from replying directly to his comment):

The “Palestine” in Roman times was not the current Arab “Palestine.” It was simply a name given to another region the Romans conquered. It was a land inhabited mostly by Jews, as it had been for hundreds or thousands of years before, depending how you account for the years the Jews were in exile or under occupation from various foreign powers. The Romans called current-day France “Gaul,” old parts of Germany were called “Prussia…” so for that reason the only thing tying current-day Palestinians to Roman Palestine is the name. The land now called Israel and Palestine has been the ancestral home of the Jews for millenia, in addition to Arab families living there side-by-side with them over the years, at times peacefully (mostly before the invention of Islam). The vast majority of “Palestinians” today would have been considered something else entirely 100 years ago, much like “Jordanian,” “Syrian,” etc are all recent inventions due to the random border-drawing of the Ottomans, Britons, and French in the last few hundred years. Under the Ottomans they placed their allegiance with tribes and large extended families, not with nationalities. This can be easily seen in many of the current sectarian and ethnic tensions inside a number of Middle Eastern countries today.

Amaris says: February 11, 2012 at 6:35 am

@ Mohamed Wazit – The Torah does not state that the Jews are forbidden to have their own state. That is a belief held by a very small faction of radical, very religious Jews called the Neturei Karta who opposed the new political ideology of Zionism that was attempting to assert Jewish sovereignty in Ottoman-controlled Palestine. They resented the new arrivals, who were predominantly secular, and claimed that Jewish redemption could only be brought about by the Messiah. They brought forth this argument from a talmudic Midrash (legend).

msamer72 says: March 1, 2012 at 9:16 pm

Impressive numbers but wrong logic Bernard!
Let us see, I am a poor guy who can barely make it each month.
If I break into Warren Buffet’s vault and get myself 1 million dollars of his 40+ Billions
Hey I want to live on a sound financial ground! What would that make me?
I guess a peace loving person who wants to live in peace with Mr. Buffet!?
or would it simply make a thief who stole something that is not his?
And if Mr. Buffet decide to fight me to get his Million dollars back,
Would he be then considered evil person for not allowing me to share this tiny piece of cash?
Come on Mr. Buffet it is only 1 million vs 40 Billion!
See the slippery slope my friend I would not even go there….

Note: All respect goes Mr. Buffet, I do admire every aspect of him and his success.

R Hawk says: October 2, 2012 at 7:31 am

Palestine does not mean Arab muslim. It was never a nation but territory and everyone seems to be forgetting the issue of Arab aggression and taking of the land by force and murder in the first place. The Brits were takes with overisight and control for a reason. The are hashemites and should go to their land of Jordan.

Lisa says: December 15, 2011 at 9:15 pm

One definitive way to solve the conflict is to have the U.S. take over the area and annex it …then there would be separation of church (religion) and state and all nationalities\religions can live peacefully together pursuing their own faiths and freedoms governed by the same laws and restrictions. Religion has no business governing a country. It is a recipe for disaster as we have all seen in many Muslim countries ruled by improperly implemented Sharia law. If the Sharia law is followed in letter and in spirit, it is perhaps the most just system available, but any wrong doing makes it look very bad. Iran for example has a very strong Islamic philosophy and it really works well.

Reply kim says: February 14, 2012 at 11:58 pm

Why in the world would the U.S. take over Israel? Of all of the absurdities I have been reading here this one takes the cake. We have to stop looking at this from a historical perspective; that history has been wiped out and all these people have known, on both sides, is war. Sure if we look at the past still the only right answer would have been that that the land should have been purchased rather than taken by force; none tried that.

The Israelis and Palestinians have been are still being used as pawns in a game that only a few understand they have both been betrayed and lied to often by the very people that they call allies. The U.S. uses Israel like a child as an excuse for its foreign policy that would otherwise be inexcusable and the Arab countries use the Palestinians as a buffer and a sideshow to hide the wrongs that they commit in the name of Islam.

The leadership of all involved has succeeded in their mandates which is to let this land and its peoples as pawns to be brought out whenever it helps their separate but equally selfish agendas. Thus the peoples of this land must find a way to create a dialog among the lay people not withstanding the leaderships designs or opinions.

Steve says: December 16, 2011 at 10:36 pm

Going back over a hundred years or so, it seems the Palestinians, who owned 97% of the land on which was called Palestine, accepted the Jew’s who lived there with them. The problems with the mass arrival of the displaced Jew’s, victims of the Nazi’s in WW2, compounded the problems with them forming the state of Israel. Had the West, ie. Europe and USA. accepted them instead of them going in droves to Palestine, the Palestinians would now be in a very stable country. The USA with small help from Europe, has transformed Israel into,probably, the most aggressive and war capable country in the Middle East. It is quite predictable, that unless Israel give back the Palestinians the land and homes they stole from them, ie.75% of the area, that nuclear weapon attacks will start from one or more southern Arabian countries within 20 years. Its a sad situation, and nothing now, can prevent a major conflict soon.

Reply brui007 says: December 21, 2011 at 11:54 am

“palestinians, who owned 97% of the land” that would be a day, since for 400 years Ottoman Turks “owned” the land and did not recognize private ownership of land, except in the cases of royalty or nobility, or where land was granted like to Circassians or Albanians. Not to mention that 73 of British Mandate territory was given to Jordan and French created Syria, also gave them southern Lebanon, to which they never had a claim. So there you go, “palestinians” have the 90% of “palestine” split into 2 states of Jordan and Syria, and then a bonus of southern Lebanon I guess they don’t have a claim to Israel, West Bank or Gaza.

lilmac says: January 19, 2012 at 4:17 am

Palestine has never been a state. It’s historical name is Canaan which has been a part of Israel for over 4,000 yrs. No wonder there is so much fighting. No one over there knows the real history. There is no such nationality as Palestinians. The Romans gave them the name in the last century and they are a mixture of people. Israel has belonged to the Jews as long as civilization has existed, it was destroyed many times and the Jews had to flee so after WW2 the British gave Israel back to the Jews which has rightfully been theirs all along.

LukeNC says: December 20, 2011 at 12:11 pm

Where could the Jews move to?

I propose, therefore, that we dedicate sufficient BLM (Bureau of Land Management) land to form New Israel, and grant it special status as an independent territory. After a sufficient number of Israelis (and perhaps some American Jews) moved there, America could recognize it as a sovereign state. New Israel could either be a successor state to treaty and related obligations of Israel, or it could be a new state altogether, if some remnant of Old Israel survived.

Move Israel to the US!

Reply Rabeb says: January 2, 2012 at 12:51 am

When someone takes your home by force and lives in it as if it’s his own home, this seems to me, as a RATIONAL human being, unfair and inhuman. It’s is a matter of dignity and it has nothing to do with hatred. Can you accept to watch a stranger who kicked you out of your home enjoy living in it??

Reply Jonathan says: January 24, 2012 at 12:53 pm

“When someone takes your home by force and lives in it as if it’s his own home, this seems to me, as a RATIONAL human being, unfair and inhuman.”

You mean how the Arabs did to the Jews after Islam was invented?

Samir. S says: January 31, 2012 at 2:14 pm

@ Jonathan.

no Jonathan, he/she means when the Jews took the lands of the Arabs at gun-point in the 1930′s-40′s and declared it their long lost country from 3000+ years ago. Islam is invented (by God) and we know it since 1400 years ago, not 3000+ years ago. before the Islamic conquest of Palestine, Palestine was under Byzantine rule and not the Jews.

Amaris says: February 11, 2012 at 5:44 am

The Jews took no ones land.

The Arab governments told the Arabs to leave Israel while they wiped out the Jews when the Arabs attacked the newly proclaimed state of Israel.

The Arab governments then told the Arabs they could go back into Israel and have any land and homes of the Jews that the Arabs wanted. Those Arabs who listened to the Arab governments and left the area, thinking they would return and reside in the Jews homes were stuck in refugee camps when the Arabs lost the war they started against the newly created Jewish state. The Arab governments refused to help those Arab refugees even though most of those refugees were in fact illegal immigrants who came into Israel from those surrounding Arab countries that attacked Israel.

There has never been an official Palestinian state. There is no such thing as the Palestinian people. Those people, for the most part, are from the surrounding Arab countries. The Palestinians were created in a day by Yassir Arafat.

The Arabs have lied about the whole thing.

Yannik Anglehart says: September 10, 2012 at 9:19 pm

You could not said it any better! Israel have always been the land of the Jews even before King David. it is only 600 years after the death & resurrection of Jesus Christ that a new religion was started which is Islam. There were no Muslim before Muhammad’s birth and as a matter of fact they were never called Muslims. It is in the seventh century that the Arabs attacks Jerusalem and toke of over the city. To make a short story, Arabs stole the Jews land in 7th century until 1948 when the receive a part of their own land.

Rabeb says: January 2, 2012 at 12:54 am

Move Israel to the US since they are friends

Reply Nur Nobi says: January 3, 2012 at 5:44 am

Palestine should be liberated because they were not born to shed blood only. What about the history of Israel? They have no sovereignty in this world, they are gypsies. They make the world full of blood. How will we, who love peace & work for peace remain silent ???!!!

Reply Amaris says: January 22, 2012 at 10:28 pm

There is no palestine. How many times have the arabs had a chance to create a palestinian state and turned it down? Several! What about the history of Israel? It goes way back to Avraham moving into Canaan and establishing his son Isaac in the land. The ancient Israelites were instructed by HaShem to get rid of the Canaanites and Philistines for their pagan practices of burning their children on alters to their gods, orgies, & temple prostitution.
There has always been one Israel throughout history for the last 4500 years, unlike islamic countries of which we count 57 that were taken away from other nations in war and infltration in the last 1400 years since it was thought up in the minds of arab men. Since islam came on the scene, more people have been slaughtered by muslims claiming jihad. Jews never behaved as muslims do. Jews have always been persecuted and hated. Israel is their home, and you muslims are trying to take that away also. Isn’t it enough that muslims in islamic countries kicked Jews out and the Jews in Israel absorbed them at great cost. Why not the arabs absorb the arab refugees in the West Bank and Gaza? The arabs who call themselves palestinians came from those arab countries anyway. There were only a few who were actual residents of Israel, most were illegal immigrants who stole into Israel from the surrounding arab countries to get jobs from the Jews. Your government is lying to you. Your government is using you as a pawn to wipe out the Jews because of the age old hostility that started with Ishmael and escalated with muhammad. Arafat is the father of modern terrorism against Jews, you are not taught love and peace but hatred and violence against Jews. This is a fact!

US Christain says: January 6, 2012 at 7:01 pm

Better than moving Israel to the us Lets make Israel a us state. So every time a missile is shot into Israel it can be considered a act of war on the us. And we can intervene.

Reply Muslim4Life says: January 21, 2012 at 5:40 pm

i totally agree….i am palestinian and ive been there. why cant we all just get along tho? have of the arabs there are scared of the jews and vice versa. War is not the key to peace.

Michael Herschel says: February 13, 2012 at 8:43 pm

US CHRISTAIN,

Please don’t bring Israel to us because it’s democracy is nothing like ours. Israel would not be a good state because half the stuff they do they wouldn’t be able to get away with.

My philosophy is let Israel be the one to attack Iran and not bring us into it because sooner or later they need to learn to stand on their own two feet.

Luis Alvarez says: January 8, 2012 at 4:08 pm

In a sense the world understands the Palestinian struggle but it’s time for the Palestinian leaders to step back and fully understand what’s against them and what’s for them. Leaders of the west and Israel will never give to Palestinians demands. So what Palestine needs to do is accept the land that is on their hands and stop all wars against Israel and concentrate on enriching that land and there people. Money is the power not religion not war. How much money has Palestinians loss in war with Israel? how many lives? This money could have bought you a government, Military and a foundation. to win a war you need a military Israel has a military Palestinians have rocks and that’s the reality. We all know not to bring a knife to a gunfight.

Reply Applereddy says: February 1, 2012 at 9:41 am

Exactly! I was just in the Middle East and was asking the same question. Why aren’t Arabs investing into their own towns and cities? Why aren’t Arab countries sending money and resources into Palestine? It shows a picture of what the priority is. Not its people. That’s what I saw. Many Arabs were trying to work in Jerusalem–waiting in long lines to cross borders, when, jobs could be created by Arabs for Arabs in Arab towns. I know there is more to this picture then that but if they want their own state, shouldn’t they start building up whatever they have now. If they are depending on Israeli jobs and even medical support (yes, Palastinians can come to Israeli hospitals and recieve care) will they expect Israel to help them from afar if they get statehood?

william hoxsas says: January 24, 2012 at 2:13 pm

this talk of isreal being ‘givin by god to the jews’ is annoying and means nothing to an athiest as my self who has no jew or arab friends
its just history reapeating itself, when a more advanced people come across a less advanced one the weaker of the two will likely end up with a loss.
ultimatly might is rite not morality and equality, unfortunatly. i guess we are still animals albeit very advanced ones.
the very idea of calling this a war is false, it was never a war with the native americans just a straight up invasion, there prospects were bleak the day the new settlers arrived. The native ammeriacans never stood a chance, much like the palestinions dont today.
its like putting a heavyweight boxer in the ring with a featherweight, its hardly a fight.
isreal has not occupied a whole country with puppydogs and rainbows, it has done so with brute strenght.
so.. good luck palestine because lets face it when ur fighting an occupation backed by the richest most powerful country on earth ur going to need it!

Reply william hoxsas says: January 24, 2012 at 2:46 pm

i also love the argument that Palestine acquired the land by conquest n therefore should see the irony of loosing it in the same way! it might be true but its not rite to punish a people for what there ancestors did over 1500 years ago!
stop calling the guys getting there ass kicked the terrorists. its not fair its like Nazi propaganda in ww2
ISRAEL STOP GOING ON ABOUT A 2000 YEAR OLD BOOK GIVING U RITES AND ADMIT THAT U ARE JUST BEING PRAGMATIC!

Reply Nursanthy says: February 24, 2012 at 3:50 am

Shai, you’re right, it was Hizballah that fired Katyushas at Israel (tho in 2006, not 2007). That was an artiraebon and Israel retaliated so hard that Hizbullah hasn’t fired a single bullet at Israel in the five years since, and things are back to normal.

SIMSyQUEIPO says: January 27, 2012 at 2:12 am

Conditions for Palestinians are deplorable in the occupied territories because every day they are brutalized, tortured; their homes taken away or demolished; their olive trees uprooted… this is also not good for the perpetrators of such evil. That many Israelis together with Palestinians, share a fierce desire for peace helps, but it is not enough. No one needs to be a scholar, Biblical, historical, political, to understand how skewed the violence is or has been for decades. All that is needed is common sense, concern for the planet, and having a heart. The rule of law, international laws, human rights all remind individuals and groups; countries and the world that justice is for everyone. Laws meant to protect all go broken each and every day in the region and somehow it is not okay to debate, to inform, to speak out against bad behavior in Israel; to debate these circumstances as they come to light? This is not simply a matter of opinion. As more information that heretofore was censored emerges, more of us are learning about injustices perpetrated by the Israeli government and the retaliation of angry extremists whether Israeli or Palestinian. The occupation should stop so that the harm it causes can cease. Palestinians and Israelis can and should live in peace without war, harm, paranoia.

Reply Feris says: January 27, 2012 at 10:51 am

As non-religious European, I have no personal experience with Jews or Arabs. Despite of remote position I think there are enough sources available for a broader impartial picture.

Everywhere we have good and bad individuals within communities or nations, hence, which are better, is no issue at all. Conflict between Israel, Palestinian Arabs and the rest of Arab world has all elements of collective insanity triggered by malignant and orchestrated religious fanaticism, prevailing to one side.

So defined side is incapable even to consider such possibility and remains convinced in their righteous cause, no matter what. Worldwide-polarized opinion only maintains such attitude, not to forget partial and other handy political and business interests.

In spite of deep religious orientation, troubled sometimes with own orthodox fanatics, Israel remain modern, constitutional, secular technological society and typical representative of developed democracies. Arab world is pure contrast, with Palestinian Arab entity even worse. Incompatible as water and oil both has to dwell in one big vessel with same rights for existence.

Religious fanaticism and obsolete tribal primitivism are primaries of Arab world. Explicitly opportunistic Palestinians irrationally maintain hatred to Israelis, at same time hastily ready to use benefits of more advanced civilization. Netanyahu could not express better, “if the Arabs lay down their arms there will be no more war, but if Israel lays down its weapons there would be no more Israel”. I believe even opponents of Israel are aware of this fact.

Arabs have many countries with vast territories; Israel is one on very limited space. Israeli existence as Jewish state is in serious jeopardy by Arab extreme demographic expansion and paradoxical influx of other Arabs and black Africa opportunistic immigration waves.

I am terrified from this same massive immigration purring in Europe almost freely, thanks to incredible ignorance off local governments and shortsighted EU policy in general. Europe is huge in comparison to Israel and I can only imagine how Israelis feel about common problem. It is common, as demographically expansive Islam is evidently hostile to white Christian civilization and that is almost undisputable.

Naturally, my sympathies stick to Israel. Arabs and Islamic world have other values, much more worth of their attention, instead of sticking to religious fanaticism and archaic tribal retardedness.

Disregarding all above, I am convinced that all mighty Mother Nature, as response to our global demographic imbalance, triggers most of our animosities, on deeper subconscious level. If there would be few of us on Earth, we would be very happy seeing each other, under any circumstances. It seams as Nature is signaling, kill yourself hastily, as I will reduce you my way, or stick your heads together and find way to balance your numbers and behavior.

Reply Samir. S says: January 31, 2012 at 1:30 pm

@ Feris; (“Netanyahu could not express better, “if the Arabs lay down their arms there will be no more war, but if Israel lays down its weapons there would be no more Israel”. I believe even opponents of Israel are aware of this fact.)

Feris, your reply summarizes the entire anti-Arab discrimination which is based on ignorance, self-denied racism against Arabs and middle-eastern people including the Jews, but which is now simply the turn of the Arabs to hate instead. It’s people like you who committed and applauded the discrimination and then the Holocaust against the Jews in the 2nd world war, people like you and Netanyahu. Stressing on the Netanyahu quote, which you advertise vividly like a clown, it is noteworthy to know the fact that Palestine is a land more than 90% percent owned by Palestinian Arabs, which was rifle looted from them by their Jewish compatriots and the massive fire power immigration during and after ww2, beginning skirmishes in the thirties and went totally ransacking after 1940s. If you publish an encyclopedia of deceiving scenarios on the subject, the facts will always be unspoiled, declaring the incidence as the greatest theft-attempt of national property of the civilized world. If the Arabs lay down their weapons it means they don’t give a damn about their country and identity, if the thieves lay down their weapons it will be the end of the bloodiest theft raiding in history. This incidence later echoed massacres in Lebanon between the Palestinians and the Lebanese, which is the direct responsibility of the zionist movement as well.

Abu Ali says: February 20, 2012 at 12:44 am

Your comment reminds me of the crazy Norwegian neo-nazi who killed scores of his own fellow citizens, for insane hatred of all Muslims (stereotype!) and his so-called love of the Apartheid, ethnic cleansing-based, genocide oriented Zionist system imposed illegally on Palestine by the imperial Britain whose mandate was to bring the local population to independence, not to “give” their country to immigrants from Europe, helping them, arming them and leaving abruptly when they knew that their illegitimate child was ferocious enough to squash the Natives.
The Zionist system has since showed that it was the last but worst colonialist version of European expansion, displaying multifaceted tools of oppression on the Native People of Palestine. The European AshkeNAZIs crazily twisted History and literally invented a strange hybrid concept, mixing religion with nationality and even race, just as the fascists did, to come up with an aggressive ideology whose declared goal is to rid Palestine of its inhabitants and uproot more or less adepts of the Noble Judaic religion from their respective homelands (135 nationalities, spreading from Russia, Eastern European countries, Western European countries to North Africans (one Million Moroccans were lured to leave their ancestral homeland through promises, lies, pressure and intimidation), to Black Africans (Ethiopians, Sudanese…), to Asians (India…), to even South America (Peru…) and the “recruitment” of potential victims of that exclusionist (only Jews or self declared Jews-as hundreds of Russian Christians- have rights and privileges, paid for with my tax billions of dollars, of course).
Just like its former ally and twin brother Apartheid South Africa, the Zionist, oppressive, criminal, colonial system is on its way to its normal fate, despite the unlimited support of the former colonial powers and their offspring (another bastard child), the so-called “United- in aggressive oppression of the rest of the world- States, with the unlimited funding- despite our own economic hardship and the increasing numbers of homeless and poverty stricken people, its irrational protection and shield from accountability in the international forums and, of course ultimate factor of current sustainability so far, the providing of weapons of mass and massive destruction against dispossessed, economically deprived Native People of Palestine.
You should be arrested wherever you are because you constitute a “present, clear and potential danger” for the people around you!

Zaf says: February 27, 2012 at 2:33 am

@Samir
what on earth are you talking about. what skirmishes? i want to see references. Jewish Zionist settlement in Israel dates back to 1882. land was BOUGHT legally with money.
you talk about ransacking ? name one event Jewish armies conquered land by force prior to 1948.
do you even know that the UN proposal for splitting the land into Arab and Jewish state was accepted by the Jewish leadership but declined by the Arab and that’s about when the war of 1948 started? Arabs refused to negotiate, refused peace, they wanted the whole land and they lost the war.
you talk about skirmishes, have you heard what happened during the British mandate? Arabs were the ones that were the ones attacking Jewish civilians. have you heard of the 1929 Palestine riots, the Jaffa riots, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. Now, in retaliation some Jews attacked back civilians during that the time of Arab attacks, yes. i do not deny it but it was coming from a place of self defense. some thought that if Jews would retaliate in the same way as the Arabs attack Jews, this would prevent them from attacking Jews in the future. fact is, it was all retaliation for Arab brutally murdering random Jews throughout the land.

set history aside. why isn’t there peace today? why Arafat declined barak’s offer in camp David in 2000 ? why Abbas declined ulmerts offer a couple of years ago ? what, 100% of the disputed territories (with swaps, 6.3% where there are more than 200,000 Israelis living there Israel would annex but would compensate with the same amount of land in another place) isn’t enough? east Jerusalem included, that not enough? what more do you want?

Gezza says: January 31, 2012 at 5:24 pm

All this talk of my land your land our land their land. It goes on and on. This world has always existed. For millions of years man has lived on this tiny spot, dotted in an never ending universe. Earth two thirds water. Enough resources for Everyone. And yet…… Is it Israel or is it Palestine. What was it 3 Million years ago?. Exactly. In another 3 million years:? What then.

Reply Camila says: February 24, 2012 at 6:24 am

(I Cor. 10:1) that the mbreems of the Corinthian church, which included both Jew and Gentiles, that they were brothers and that the forefathers were their forefathers. That means Abraham was the forefather of Gentiles through faith in Christ. Am I reading this correctly?

JILLIANE MELORIN says: February 2, 2012 at 7:53 am

please help me,we have a debate class and the motion is
This house believes that there will be no peace in the middle east without the palestinian state..
im in the government side and i find a hard time to prove our motion. tnx

Reply US Christain says: February 3, 2012 at 3:20 pm

We should all strive for peace in the middle east. But there will never be lasting peace there. If the tables were turned and Palestine had the army and all that Israeli has there would be no Israeli.

Hubert Schaab says: February 24, 2012 at 10:36 am

Dear Jilliane,

In this forum I read so many falsehoods and misunderstandings about history. One of them: there has never been a “Palestinian people”. There was no Palestinian language, currency, national anthem, etc. etc. The name “(Syrian) Palaestina” was given to the land by the Romans after crushing the Jewish revolt(s) against them in 66-70, 116-117 and 132-135 AD. They massacred about a million Jews. Many (not all!) Jews fled and were dispersed over the world. Many foreign nations have ruled it since then: the Roman and Byzantine empires (before and after Christianity took over). The Muslims took Jerusalem in 637 and (with the exception of a short rule by the Crusaders) ruled the area since then, finally the Turks, until the British took over in 1917. All the time there was NEVER a Palestinian state, and the Arabs mostly called it Southern Syria. Not being able to destroy the Jewish state of Israel, the Arab states invented the “Palestinian struggle for Independence” (in the 1960s and 70s) to gain sympathy for their cause. But the Palestinian leaders never accepted their own state when they could get it (1947, 2000, 2008). Why? Because they do not want it beside Israel, but INSTEAD OF Israel.

sophia says: February 4, 2012 at 4:02 pm

Many people have mentioned that Jews and Arabs lived peacefully amongst one another before the advent of Islam. I wonder why; both Judaism and Christianity have expanded throughout history, with each religion striving to be the only one. This began in the Early Common Era. When Islam became an established religion, there was no hatred between Jews and Muslims, in fact the Muslims have given sanctuary to them when no one else would. It is only once Islam began to prosper that the Jewish realised that this new religion and its teachings could influence more people than Judaism or the Torah ever could. The Jews then began to oppress the Muslims and since then there has been a mutual hatred between two religions which are ultimately and fundamentally so similar in their teachings and morals.

For the Palestinians it is not about the amount of land they have because as many people have stated, there are other Arab states for them to occupy. However, if the Palestinians do stop fighting for what is right, they will be accepting the oppression from Israel and the Unites States.

Reply kim says: February 14, 2012 at 11:33 pm

Sophia – It is about the land and the right to exist peacefully. I don’t know here you are from but I am from the U.S. and land rights are the cornerstone of liberty. To simply kick someone out of their land would be considered an act of war for any U.S. citizen.

You are also misinformed in your statement that “Jewish realised that this new religion and its teachings could influence more people than Judaism or the Torah ever could.”. The Jewish religion is not one that seeks conversion, as a matter of fact from all evidence that I have seen conversion isn’t truly possible since the religion and the bloodline are intertwined.

You are however correct in your assessment that both the Jewish and Muslim peoples coexisted peacefully even harmoniously previous to the establishment of the state of Israel. Since the immigration of the Muslims to Medina, the Jewish people, while at times there leadership became hostile, were considered the answar, answar is a very powerful title that in simple terms means the helper but in its deeper meaning the title holds the person as a partner and supporter.

The divisions that we now see between The Muslims and The Jewish people are not truly about religion or race but in fact have been manufactured by various leadership factions around the world. Therefore it is imperative for them open a dialog among the lay people despite the leadership because the sad truth is that Palestine is a buffer and excuse for all kinds of atrocities around the world.

Pamela Jones says: February 16, 2012 at 6:02 pm

Israel is not oppressing anyone! The land is theirs, given to them by GOD as an inheritance FOREVER! If the Palestinians want their own land, they should go back to CRETE where they originally came from!

Manikuntal says: February 22, 2012 at 1:56 am

Correction to my previous comment- I meant to say that if Israel faced another existential crisis as it did in the waiting period before the Six Day War in 1967, I am sure that world Jewry WOULD rally to Israel’s defense, unlike what I wrote above.

Rita Amaral says: February 5, 2012 at 4:33 pm

Okay, let’s see… so i agree that after the world war II the Jewish people had the right to have their own homeland, because it’s obvious that since they were expelled from Judea, it have been a chaos. But stealing the home of thousands of Palestinians it’s not right ether… So there is only one solution, Palestine and Israel together as one country, with representatives of both religions the make things better for both.. Killing each other is not the solution.

Reply Zaf says: February 27, 2012 at 1:57 am

@Rita – Jews have the right for their homeland with or without the holocaust. Actually Zionism has NOTHING to do with the holocaust and the movement itself was created during the second half the 1800′s. Jews BOUGHT territories in Israel from local sheikhs and lords and built settlements there. This dates early as 1882, that’s 57 years before WW2. During all of this time Jews migrated back to their historic homeland where they were driven out of by the Assyrians, Persians, Romans, Arabs and crusaders. During the time of the roman rule on Israel, then called Judea, the Jews revolted against roman rule. the Romans crushed the rebellion, exiled many Jews out of the country, seized many of them and turned Jews into slaves deported to Rome among other places. Not only that, they changed the name of the land from provincia Judea to Palestine to humiliate the Jews. 600 years or so, arab-muslims imperialism spread throughout the Middle East from Arabia. Among other the Arabs conquered Judea/Palestine, killing many of the local Jewish population, converting many others into Islam. The story of how the Arabs got to Palestine is the story of conquest, imperialism and occupation.
Back to 19-20th century, while Arabs had little to non interest in the land of Israel Jews bought land and settled there. After WW1 the international community gave the British a mandate over the land so that a Jewish state would be created in that land. The British had other things in their mind. The original mandate territory included what are today Israel, Gaza, west bank, Jordan and the Golan heights. The British had their own interest and divided that country up. They gave east of the mandate – Jordan, to the Hashemite – nowadays rulers of Jordan. They traded the Golan height with the French who ruled Syria for oil in Iraq. So after already separating the country into one Arab state, now they planned to do it again with the small territory left – Israel.
Anyhow, in the meanwhile a conflict emerged over territory. Ok. The UN proposed a deal – lets split the remaining land of the British mandate (yes, split yet again) into an Arab state and a Jewish state. The Jewish leadership accepted the proposal. The Arab declined. And so the war began. a war in which the Arabs with armies from Egypt, Syria, Jordan, local militias of Arabs, and even help on a smaller scale from the armies of Iraq, Algeria, a Libya attacked the Jewish entity. Through luck, the Arabs lost that war. Many civilians fled their homes because of their leadership told them to. Some were panicked by rumors of brutality. Only in a few incidents force was used against civilians but in a very small scale. (I would like to remind the fact that during the war, Jewish settlements that were seized by Arab forces were runned to the ground – kfar etzion for example and the remaining population there killed).

The truth is much more elaborated and complicated. The problem Israel faces is that it’s not as quick to explain the history of Israel that spans over 3000+ years as it is to lie. Lies are easier to spread, that’s a fact. what message could be broadcast better – what I just wrote (and it’s not even the complete story, I didn’t say anything about how Arab used terror since the beginning of the conflict, I didn’t mentioned that before Arab nationalism and Muslim radicalism took over Arabs were glad Jews are coming back to their homeland, providing an economic boost to the region, even king faisal was delighted.) or talking about Palestinian refugees without telling how and why they became refugees.

Reply Zaf says: February 27, 2012 at 2:08 am

@Sophia what you’ve just said shows you have an amazing lack of knowledge and misinformation.
unlike Islam and Christianity Judaism isn’t a faith that tends to spread itself to other people. to become a christian you have to be splashed with water. to become a Muslim you have to say one sentence. to become a Jew you have to undergo a process of learning the faith that can take more than a few years before you can become Jewish. even in ancient times, Judaism did not spread it self much.
Islam was never tolerant to other religions. are you familiar with the story of Haibar ? Haibar is a place in arabia were Jews lived. the Jews of haibar were betrayed by their ally Muhammad. the Muslim Arabs sneak attacked those Jews, killing the men, and capturing the women and converting them.
have you heard about the Jews of mashaad, iran? they were forced to convert to Islam or face death penalty. these events took place in the 7th century and the 19th century. Jews cannot have oppressed Muslims before the 7th century because the Muslim faith did not exist until 7th century. and after that they Muslim conquered all of the middle east and controlled the area from Morocco to Persia, converting the local population and absorbing them into the Arab culture. so in one hand we a have an imperialist Arab-muslim movement, a huge empire, very strong one. on the other hand we have some local population of Jews throughout the middle east. you claim that the Jews oppressed the ones that rule them? do you even realize how absurd your claims are? your lack of knowledge is frighting.

Reply Moody says: February 28, 2012 at 12:36 pm

Your lack of knowledge is frightening, If you get your facts right, it was the Jews of Khybar that betrayed the Muslims and they did not do this before or after a battle but during a battle even after a treaty was signed with all parties. If you look at any law, this is called treason and even by today’s standards treason in some western countries is punished by death. So i suggest that you get your facts right before making claims, which are based on your own biased opinions. As a believer in God, i believe that this conflict is not a religious conflict and highlights the problem with mankind.

Irony Detected says: February 29, 2012 at 2:51 pm

@ZAF what you’ve just said shows you have an amazing lack of knowledge and misinformation.

Explain Spain under in its Muslim era? If you weren’t a Muslim all you had to do was pay a tax. If you paid said tax you never had to do the things required of a Muslim. You had less responsibility. Also explain the deteriorating state of Palestine? I guess you don’t see it if you close your eyes.
Case and point:

Zionist Plans for Palestine

Looks like those poor Jews are taking a beating… wait a minute.

bill says: February 28, 2012 at 9:22 pm

This is a great topic and should be discussed at length everywhere. Fact is people have been migrating and taking land from others since the begining of time. England, Spain, Italy and the United States, just to name a few, were masters at it. POWER is the word you should be using here and Israel has it. It is not about God’s promise and never was. The Hebrew’s and Jew’s left the area for many different reasons. And they return for many different reasons. True, the UN could have handled it better. After WWII few countries wanted refugees. So most, collectively agreed with the UN to create the new state of Israel. It caused many problems. Israel maintains power because of 60 years of US backing. World opinion of Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians is causing this to change. Israel Claims a Parlimentary Democracy. But wants the Palestinians to recognize it as a Jewish state. This is not true democracy. The only way peace is going to come about is to allow Palestinian citizenship and free elections. Israel may be in charge now but remember “You reap what you sow”.

Reply hatehitler says: March 15, 2012 at 5:29 pm

Looks like BDS is getting stronger, and yet they, and other’s ‘for’ the Palestinians, never ever mention the violence against the Israelis. Why is that? HH.

Reply Martha G says: March 25, 2012 at 6:05 am

“fakestinians”FAKESTINIANS:

FAKE “NATION”

When you search on google for “fakestinians” Google asks you ‘Did you mean palestinians’?
The reason is because Arab “palestinians” who are mostly immigrants’ grandchildren, are a made-up (invented) “nation,” founded by Arab racism to delegitimize Jews’ return to its historic homeland.

SELF-INFLICTION / ORCHETRATING SELF-”MASSACRES”

Second. Its cult of fake victimhood. Starting with its self-infliced Naqba, and their constant use of civilians to cause their deaths in order to tarnish humane IDF Zionists (who go to great length in avoiding collateral damage, including notifications to residents ahead of an anti-terror op. to evacuate), they call these outcomes as “massacres.”

FABRICATING “INFO”

Just as they fabricate pictures, they fabricate “stories.” [Search 'Pallywood'] You can never take an Arab-Palestine/ Islamic Hezbollah as a reliable source. I’d take an Israeli source –a society which is one of the most self-criticized–over most systems around the globe.

Reply Liz H. says: March 29, 2012 at 8:50 pm

Can you please kindly explain why my comment was not published? Thank you.

Reply Josephina says: April 1, 2012 at 7:50 am

Just because Arab-Muslim ‘Palestinians’ use their civilians population to cause their deaths in order to tarnish Israel’s name, does not make them a “victim.”

Remind me again “Palestinian” motto: Today the Saturday people, tomorrow the Sunday people.

The root of the Arab Vs Israel conflict is both forms of bigotry, ethnic Arab racism and religious Islamic bigotry.

What motivates Israel (the 100% democratic, mostly secular country, where Arab enjoy preferential treatment in affirmative action, and where most of its laws’ origins date back to British Mandate and Ottomans) is pure survival, against the Arab-Islamic genocide campaign that began in Hebron 1929.

Reply Thomas says: April 9, 2012 at 10:34 am

Firts of all and most important – I dont need to care about relligion, but I care about the people… Im from Poland country where we suffer same as Jews, my grandfathers tried to help them during the World War II risking their lives. If they only could see right now what`s going on in Palestine…

Today Western Civ. controls the Middle East, and with their support Israel doin a good bussines, like they used to do.
They called themselves religious, so with my grandfathers support ( I think I can say that cause I knew them well ) I wish you to BURN IN YOUR JEWISH HELL !!!

Reply Haley says: April 10, 2012 at 1:47 am

So glad to see some debate. I was laughing as I read some of this information.

Even if it is accurate, it is still biased. You have to tell both sides of a fight to allow readers to get a real feel for the conflict.

There was no discussion in the article I read of Israeli terrorist attacks on Palestinians, the forced Exodus, and the nature in which Israel took the land.

I’m disgusting by the out right disregard for the Palestinian side. This site is just proof that the victors can write history.
And how dare the authors of this site use “Palestinian facts”, it should be “Zionist BS” instead.

People claim that the PLO teaches hatred of Jews to Palestinian children, I think it is clear that the Jewish propagate hatred of Palestinians just as well.

Reply Mike says: April 16, 2012 at 4:42 am

Haley there is an entire article under “Independent Israel” on israeli atrocities against palestinians. You really should actually try to read things before making conclusions! This site, unlike palestinian websites, actually ACKNOWLEDGES atrocities of BOTH sides.

peter says: September 3, 2012 at 10:54 pm

thats right were told JEW JEW throughout the media this is zionism!!!!! As you say about Israel propagate theres some horrific educational videos for children filled lies and hatred from many years ago and we must remember Judaism and Israel are seperate they are a contradiction in definition. MUST KEEP FAITH THE WORLD WILL SEE!!!!!!! Lets make it FREE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! no more power all be free

Liz H. says: April 16, 2012 at 11:42 pm

Not that one, the previous one. You know, the substantial, explicated one? An answer would at least be courteous!

Reply admin says: April 23, 2012 at 6:26 am

Hi Liz

Please send in, the comment again and we will publish it if it falls within our guidelines.

Simon Purestone says: April 24, 2012 at 8:15 pm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNCV33i9Caw
(Video) Al-Husseini-grandson, Muslim-Brother, PLO-Chief and bearer of the Nobel Prize of Peace1994 Yassir Arafat on 21 October 1998 on the occasion of a inner-palestine meeting::

“We know only one word: Dschihad, Dschihad, Dschihad, Dschihad!”

So, of course, the peace negotiations of 2000 couldn’t be successful… Or: Arafat’s pure Taqiyya – outwardly!

Reply Liz H. says: May 8, 2012 at 1:28 am

Ok. Also, I am simply curious (for future reference) what are your guidelines?

Reply admin says: May 8, 2012 at 4:33 am

Hi Liz

We only publish comments that add value to the discussion. We edit only for spelling mistakes. As long as there is no racism and hate incited comments, they are published.

Blake says: July 5, 2012 at 10:35 am

No you don’t you cannot stand the facts from published Israeli historians like Hillel Cohen, Ilan Pappe, Avil Shlaim, Simha Flapan, Benny Morris even and yet you print ghastly hate filled rants against Muslims seen all over the net infested with dire Israeli propagandists with very little grey matter. I won’t even go into international law and waste anymore time on your twobit propaganda site

admin says: May 8, 2012 at 4:30 am

Just discovered the Palestine facts site. It looks like an excellent resource – well done to all concerned

I’m writing an article at the moment on the Temple Mount. I’m trying to understand the history of why the Arabs still have authority (the Waqf). My understanding is that it dates back to a British decision during the Mandate

Can you shed any light on this ?

Kindest regards

Neil Turner

Reply john paul gettelman says: May 16, 2012 at 3:37 am

What about the Arab Empire? How can people preach about imperial conquest,racism, and Palestine natives without talking about the Arab Empire? Are Palestine natives Palestine Arabs? Are Palestine Arabs part of the sons of the Arab Empire or not? How do sons of the Arab Empire become Palestine natives? Sounds like a riddle? How do Palestine Arab sons of the Arab Empire become Palestine victims? The leading spokesmen of Palestine Arabs never clearly state how Palestine Arab sons of the Arab Empire have the right to claim to be Palestine natives while calling Judaean Hebrew Israelis imperial invaders?Are Palestine Arabs Palestine displaced? Are the Sons of the Arab Empire Palestine exiles? Are Palestine Arab sons of Arab imperial supremacy Palestine uprooted? What about the Palestine Arab sons of Arab imperial conquest?

Reply john paul gettelman says: May 16, 2012 at 5:46 am

Speaking of Palestine Arab sons of the Arab Empire,how about Sudan Arab sons of the Arab Empire? What about Darfur Black African Islamic non Arab victims of Sudan Arab sons of the Arab Empire? To help connect the dots,how about Syrian and Iraqi Arab sons of the Arab Empire war on Kurdish Islamic non Arabs?To extend the question,How about the Arab imperial partners in Iran and Turkey and their war on Kurds, Assyrians Armenians,Baluchis and anybody else in their way? Speaking of Arab imperial invaders,how about the Coptic Egyptic language and it’s speakers of this last remnant of the classical Egyptian language? Notice a pattern yet? How about the Western Sudanic ,in Arabic Black African, state of Mauritania? Like the east African Sudan Arab republic Mauritania is a Black majority country ruled by an Arab minority.Correction update, the east African Sudan Arab republic is now cut down from it’s Black majoity staus to about half and half African Black Islamic non Arabs and The sons of the Arab Empire. This is due to the peace accord that end Arab minority rule over a Sudan African Black majority.Let’s remember Sudan Arabist war on south Sudan Christian and African social life. While sons of Arab imperial invaders waged war on South Sudan Africans Darfur was inflamed. Remember Darfur Sudan African Black Islamic non Arabs.There are many Sudan African Black Islamic non Arabs in the Sudan Arab republic. Nubia was cut in half by the Arab republics of Egypt and Sudan. Egyptian Arab Socialist nationalist dictator,Gamal Abdal Nasser, flooded Nubian country on the Nile river.The Egyptian Arab sons of the Arab Empire drowned Black African Nubian Islamic non Arabs country for the greater Arab nation.Look up Aswan dam and Lake Nasser. Meanwhile,back in the Sudan Arab state other Nile-Sahara Black African Islamic non Arabs were under attack by Sudan Arab sons of the Arab Empire.Darfur was one such case. Nubas were another.This is reflected in the West African Sudan Black African Islamic nonArabs of Mauritania.Here an African Black Islamic non Arab majority is still ruled by an Arab minority claiming patrilineage from Arabia. Two major Black African Islamic non Arab ethnic lineages populate The Arab state of Maritania. Fulani language speakers and other African neighbors of Fulanis,Bambaras,Wolof and Tukolur are French educated Islamic non Arabs.These African Islamic non Arabs are akin to Senegalese and Fulanis have kin accross the whole Sudan Black African zone from Maueitania in west Africa to cental Africa,bordering Darfur.in the east African Sudan Arab republic.The other major African Black Islamic Non Arabs of Mauritasnia are simply known as Sudanis or Blacks in Arabic,in contrast to bidanis or white Arabs.Sudani Black Mauritanians are further divided into abeed or slaves and Haratin or serf ex slaves. Both slaves and serfs speak Arabic in contrast to the Fulanis and other French speaking African Black Islamic non Arabs.This is only the social ethnic lineage of the African Black Islamic non Arab majority of Mauritania.Food for thought for answers to questions of Arabist imperial grand sons of the Arab Empire.What is the connection of the Palestine Arab,Sudan Arab and Mauritanian Arab sons of the Arab Empire? What kinds of human rights are expected for Blsck African Islamic non Arabs ? Whe haven’t even touched on the Berber African Islamic non Arabs under occupation by the sons of Arab imperial conquest over north Africa.

Reply Poopanator says: June 1, 2012 at 6:18 pm

I think we should just fight aliens and NOT eachother. It is ridiculous we are fighting among ourselves when another much more powerful force is coming to destroy all of us come on guys

Reply Freddy says: June 1, 2012 at 6:22 pm

I found this website very helpful. I believe all these facts were truthful. I think that Palestine should be it’s own country.

Reply Soce says: June 14, 2012 at 6:55 am

Behind all this is a family called ROTHSCHILD. They are well known as bankers across the world. They created and own modern Israel and control American’s political system. They funded both sides of WW1 and WW2. America also fund Israel’s War machines. BTW, they make huge money off wars. They are money and power hungry people who will do anything until they get what they want and that is to be able to control the whole world. Their agenda lines up with illuminiati’s, so together they are pursuing this and have been for centeries. They are behind what’s happened to Palestine and it’s people. A majority of human population across the world don’t know about the struggle that Palestine people have been through the past 70 to 80 years or so.. Its never gained great media attention because Rothschild owns majority of main media outlets across the world.. think about it, if it were two completley different countries with one having driving out people of another land using war machines and propaganda.. taking land that is not theirs.. news of it would hit the media liek crazy on day one and everyone who has a heart would go on a frenzy about it because it’s just not right!! and eventually other countries would of intervened.. why hasn’t america or other powerful countries intervened? because Israel or should I say ROTHSCHILD have control over it all!! They wanted Palestine because they had great business interests in the far east and desired their own state in that area along with their own military which they could use as an aggressor to any state that threatened there interests! Everyone is looking at Britain, yes.. they had no right but they made a deal with America which costed the Palestine people greatly.. all because Rothschild do not care for the people not even people of there own. They call themselves Jews but are really Khazars (Azkanazi Jews)! Also, they are all Zionists! For those that read this, research Rothschild.. you would be shocked! I honestly do not know how these people can sleep at night, I really dontt! Open your mind up, and see the bigger picture here!

Reply john says: July 6, 2012 at 4:33 pm

iz america not seeing the terrorism of israel ….,shame on its work

Reply chong lee says: July 13, 2012 at 6:35 am

I find the palastines whinning to be quite humorious.

War is the ultimate form of politics.

If you fight a war and lose you lose the arguement. Palastines as a people are bunch of parastie.
Muslim society in whole in last 300 years failed. As people they have failed

In last 300 years they have not advance the human race in any form what so ever.

Currently there is nothing that comes from any mulsim coutry besides natural resoruces that are any use
to the human race. They do not produce anything of value, they do not advance anything of value.

Their poverty rate is absoulty astounding when you consider all their advantages in natural resource (OIL) .
As a wealth creater.

Tell us why they Palastines DESERVE a country, what right what worth do they offer the world.

Reply Emir Bachir says: September 25, 2012 at 7:47 pm

Well chong lee. At this rate you’d have no problem if Germany or France or any other rich western country were to expropriate some poor African country like say the Congo… and just kick its people out… those poor good for nothings… what has the Congo done for me lately? Hey, I think you are on to something chong lee; only thing is you’ll have to take it up with the UN and the rest of international community since it goes right against all established international law. But that is no reason to give up… you can march on down to the UN and get that fixed ASAP. Good luck!

Someone says: August 6, 2012 at 5:07 pm

I can find many flaws in the reasoning of the Palestinians. Let me just state a couple of FACTS (unlike the “facts” in this website): 80% of the population of Jordan is “Palestinian” – this is more than the percentage of Jews in Israel. Contrary to popular belief, the land of Israel was not inhabited by “Palestinians” for centuries. The land of Israel, according to many sources (including one written by Mark Twain on his visit to Israel), was desolated and uninhabited. This is the quote by Mark Twain in 1867:

“Palestine sits in sackcloth and ashes. Over it broods the spell of a curse that has withered its fields and fettered its energies… Palestine is desolate and unlovely… It is a hopeless, dreary, heartbroken land. A desolate country whose soil is rich enough, but is given over wholly to weeds – a silent mournful expanse… A desolation is here that not even imagination can grace with the pomp of life and action… We never saw a human being on the whole route… There was hardly a tree or a shrub anywhere. Even the olive and the cactus, those fast friends of the worthless soil, had almost deserted the country.”

This is why the original Zionists’ motto was “A land without a people for a people without a land”. The fact is, when the Zionists immigration started, many Arabs from Arab countries started coming to Israel as well in order to look for jobs (this mass immigration made Israel all of a sudden much more populated and so it had many more job opportunities). This is why so many “Palestinians” have names such as Iraqi (coming from Iraq), Misri (“Misr” meaning Egypt in Arabic, thus coming from Egypt), and other names that indicate their true origins. This is also why no Palestinian can tell you of any Palestinian leader before Yasser Arafat and why, in all history, there is no record of a group of people by the name of “Palestine” ever existing (except for this very recent hoax). In fact, the Israelis who were in Israel before its founding in 1948 were often referred to as “Palestinians” since this is what this land has been called by the Romans after they expelled the Jews from Israel. The modern day “Palestinians” have no relation with the biblical Philistines. The word Philistine comes from the Hebrew word “palash” which means to invade. The ancient Jews thus decided to call the invaders “Philistines”. Those Philistines, in fact, were not even Arabs and they came from the areas of modern day Greece and Cyprus (the “Sea People” were among them).

I really hope that this comment gets published and that someone out there takes the time to read it. This is pretty much all you need to know about the origin of the problem.

Reply Arun Gh. says: August 13, 2012 at 10:53 am

This land belongs to the JEWS, Palestinian never existed, and never will. Let the Arab live anywhere in their other 22 countries.

Reply KIBERU HAMID says: August 30, 2012 at 7:35 pm

Even the jews know that that land belongs to parestinian all in time will come

pho says: November 6, 2012 at 5:05 pm

It will soon be 23, actually. After the State of Palestine is recongised by the General Assembly in November.

Doomed says: November 21, 2012 at 1:36 am

It did maybe 3000 or so years ago. But it’s now 2012.

As most of the Israel Jews were European and we get this whole “to the victor the spoils” nonsense. (yep very civilized thinking that) wouldn’t it of made more sense to of given them Germany back in the 40′s???

That is the land they were born and raised in, that is the land they were murdered over, that is the land the were made to leave.
THAT is/was their home.

I pity the human race. As long as we have such minded individuals as yourself to deal with, this world will never know peace.

CJ says: November 29, 2012 at 12:45 am

For thousands of years the land of Israel lay in ruin. Undeveloped, no industry, sheep farmers, no oil, etc. In 1948 when Jews were reinstated, not transplanted as some ignorant person referred above, the land began to blossom. Only with coming wealth did the land of Israel become more and more of interest to the Arabs who suffer from chronic infighting, economic mismanagement and growth in personal wealth at the top by ensuring the world has ample greenhouse gases. For those illiterates who right here it is a historical fact that the Jews were expelled from the land of Israel by, among others, the Romans, your Christian predecessors. Anyone who disputes this is blind or chooses to be blind. So for all of you that dislike Jews and Israelis for whatever reason, whether you call it anti-Semitic, ignorant or whatever, the land belongs to Jews and it is the so called Palestinians who have a claim to it that is based not in fact but in journalism. With all their resources, with all their history, with all their financial power and wealth, the Arab nations have individually (except in the case of a few Gulf states) shown themselves time and again as being incapable of governing themselves without wars, massacres, infighting, suicide bombing themselves and blaming every else for their problems. And now these nut bars in Iran will control the nuclear switch and who will they point it at? Has one blogger here pointed a wagging finger at Iran, Hizbullah, Fatah and Hamas’ constant barrage of existential threats not just towards Israel but Jews anywhere. They have stated publicly that Jews anywhere are military targets of these devil re-incarnates wherever they are. Regardless of their so called reasons and justifications they threaten to annihilate Jews anywhere (India, Argentina, Hungary). Tourists, kids. You godless writers here have the nerve to gloss over those events and not even wave your fingers at the perpetrators. So if that’s not Jew hating bold faced antisemitism them I am not sure what is. So I hope you can some how find it in your warped brains polluted with hatred, that for all of you mourn for the Palestinians that perhaps you take a moment to consider the hypocrisy and absurdity of your positions. You cannot mask the hatred. You cannot hid your evil.

CJ says: November 29, 2012 at 12:48 am

Well said.

Hello says: August 29, 2012 at 9:55 pm

Clearly there is hatred from both sides due to historical events, but haven’t both sides figured out that, war isn’t the solution to matter like theses. In fact, both religions state that, bloodshed isn’t the way to progress in matters like these. So why continue to fight. Why can’t either of the sides just find an fair solution. Obviously this isn’t going to happen because both sides are blinded with hate.

However, I would point the finger at Isreal as they can control this situation if they wish since they are the stronger nation. They could end the attacks on Palestine and Palestine will respond without violence.

Reply Uriel says: August 31, 2012 at 9:53 am

Anti-Zionism is Anti-Semitism.
Anti-Zionism is Anti-Christian.
Anti-Zionism is Anti-Israel.
Anti-Zionism is Anti-Jew.

If any Christian can show me in the NEW TESTAMENT WHERE THE LAND IS EVER CALLED PALESTINE.
With Book, Chapter & Verses.

Even the Koran states, the Land belongs to the Children of Israel, an no mention at all of Palestine.

You have Hezballah & Hamas killing each other off in Gaza & West Bank at each others throats like Dogs

Reply peter says: September 3, 2012 at 10:45 pm

Theres key points that must be remembered. That how Israel was created, by acts just malice as the ones used to justify the persecution that has taken place since this states creation. Secondly the area now known as Israel and Palestine has been populated by Jews and Arabs for well millenia and on the whole theyve got on quite nicely. That land has always been accessible to Jews and i do believe it is against the Jewish faith for them to have a ‘homeland’? Which would explain the large anti Israel Jewish community, Im not anti semetic but Israel is just plain wrong if anything to be pro israel is anti semetic and this all part of something much bigger.

Reply Emil Berlendy says: September 16, 2012 at 6:54 pm

i have read the bible now for 32 years pretty steadily,i know enough to read into alot of truth and lies i dont want to say to much but all i know is what i read in the bible and not just 1 bible,king james the secret teachings of jesus gnostic gospels,the marion bible from the vatican different things were said but all pointing to the same people the jewish people god is not pleased with most of the Jews but not pleased with other countrys but not the most, to be the chosen to teach other people the truth,they failed,the whole truth will be revealed as each day goesby each year.

Reply D.Richard Paul says: September 20, 2012 at 9:56 am

It is not the no of persons that decide about the ownership of a country. But we have to sincerely study the background of the country and its previous history which is more important. Now when we read the bible we do find some peculiar tribes born out of illegal contacts on the inducement of satan. The satan did so only to have for himself people on this earth that God created to be his worshipers. But God created man to worship and praise Him for He is a Lord living among the praises. Rev 4th chapter which explains about the scene of heaven clearly shows a picture where the Cherabims and the elders and all the host of angels are praising him eternally. Let us studyi some of the tribes that were born to praise satan and how they exist now.
The Bible says that Abraham had a concubine named Kethura (Genesis 25:1&2) Out of this concubine the meddianites came into being who worked against GoD and His people. The tribes born out of the illegal contacgt of the daughters of Lor were Moabites and the Amonites (Genesis 19:36-38). But regarding the caananites we see that Canaan was born to Cam who was the son of Noah (Genesis 10:13) There were many unblessed tribes that arose from canaan. The list of the tribes that arose out of canaan are mentioned in Genesis Chapter 10. All these were called as Canaanites and they settled in the present Palastein including the land of Canaan which the Lord had earmarked for His people the Israelites and the Jews. The other tribes who worked against God like the decendants of Wsa called as he Edomites (Genesis 36:1) settled in the mountain Seir adjustant to the red sea. Edom means red and theseir mountains are red in colour. Red represents sin (Isaiah 1:18). Antichrist and the whore satan is also in red colour. (Rev 17:3). When God led the Jews from Egypt to the land of Canan the propmised land it was all these tribes that serve satan raised against God and His people. It was God’s mighty hand that led them (Joshua 24:6-13) But since hey sinned the Lord had made them slave for 70 years However it was God’s mercy tht thdy were released on the 1st year King Cyrus. The Canaanites and the other tribes except the Edomites adopted the religion of Islam. The Main tribe Ismael and his descendants. Ishmael was born of the servant maid called Hagar through Abraham. God did acknowledge Ishmael to be the son of Abraham for in Chapter 24 of Genesis God said to Abraham that he should take his one and only son Isaac to the mountain Moria and sacrifice him. All these people who ollowed satan joined hands and adopted Islam as their religion after AD 625 and and Mohammed Nabi instead of guiding teh people of repentence and to submit to the true God had interpreted the bible controversially stating that It was Ismael that God commanded to be sacrificed. Almost all teh verses of the koran was taken from the Bible and twisted in the opposite manner thus creating a religion to worship satan and not God. and God had already told that such a thing will occur in Daniel 7:25. In the last days Anti christ will araise from among them. As the Bible had prophecised now JErusalem has been given to the Jews in the year 1948 (Isaiah 11:11&12) and the walls and the city is being rebuilt (Daniel 9:25) The Bible has predicted that the Jerusalem Temple will be rebuilt and a the Powerful word of God will pass throughout the world. The whole world will come over to Jerusalem to seel the Lord God seated in the Temple of Jerusalem,.(Micha 4:1&2). But however the satan will conquer the city of Jerusalem and occupy the temple for 3 1/2 years and he will be seated in the place where God the Lord was seated and pose himself as God. This what Daniel said as the “abomination of dessolation ” in Daniel 11:31, which Jesus referred in Mathew 24:15. It is then that Jesus will descend from the heaven in a white throne and destroy all the tribes of satan and satan will also be destroyed and then He will judge the world Rev 19,20th chapters. Then He sill destroy this world with fire (II Peter3:6&7) remove it from its orbit and create a new heaven and earth (Rev:21&22) and establish His kingdom where the saved will be accomodated. The tribes of the satan will be cast into the previous earth the lake of fire where they will be tormented for ever and ever(Rev 20:15) So it is time we submit ourselves to the Lord our God and live with Jesus for ever and ever in Heaven. Now is the time to repent. Otherwise the Lake of fire is kept ready. God’s word will surely be fulfilled as it has been happening all these days. Brothers and sisters awake think read the Bible and change for now is the time of mercy.

Reply Emir Bachir says: September 25, 2012 at 7:29 pm

First, sad that anyone should use this site as a real source of facts; second, I see what might appear as both pro-Israeli and pro-Palestinian bunk. Example of the latter:
“The justification of Jews, that they claim the land because it belonged to them 3,300 years ago and was lost in the war, is absurd”

For those who are really looking for facts, look elsewhere.

Full disclosure: I myself am Palestinian; I try to be understanding of Israelis but find Zionism as such abhorent; for the facts, you might start with Israeli historians such as Benny Morris and Elan Pappe. If you are looking for propaganda keep listening to the news

Reply sara says: October 1, 2012 at 4:20 pm

THIS IS PALESTINE NOT ISRAEL ! I AM AN ARAB PALESTINIAN AND THIS IS PALESTINE !! AND WILL ALWAYS BE ! YOU GUYS KNOW NOTHING TO SAY THAT THATS NOT PALESTINE ! obviously i’m soo angry by all the non sense your saying is IS PALESTINE and will ALWAYS BE ! put that in mind one .. just ONE DAY you’ll see the truth with regrets of what your saying right now.

Reply Raul Mejía says: October 2, 2012 at 8:56 pm

Palestine will be Free!
Palestina Libre carajo!
Support from Latin America Palestine!

Reply mike usa says: October 24, 2012 at 5:18 pm

How did Muslims obtain the land? Through jihad. So stop whining about the Jews taking it back. If I’m not mistaken, its Muslims who are demand land all over the world. Muslims still think that Spain is rightfully theirs. Stop being hypocrites. It was Jewish land before Islam even existed.

Reply Genii says: October 28, 2012 at 2:20 am

What will happen to the Jews in Palestine when the world is tired of feeding them and putting up with their lies? Where will they go?

Reply claudin says: November 16, 2012 at 6:10 pm

I’m Tlingit. An Alaska Native. Five hundred years ago another people landed on the shores far to the southeast and swept across this continent. They formed a country where there had been a people already. Today, were I reinstated by, say, China, as the original GOD GIVEN “owner” of this land, who would you here on this site support? How would the behaviors of my people towards the current ancestors of FIVE HUNDRED generations of people affect your view of my rights? This is not complicated. It is a simple matter of compassion, as are all such matters. There is no such thing as rights…we humans made that up. Get a grip on your sense of entitlement and greed and look beyond the minutia of how so very important we all are. Now look at today. What is the behavior of those in the area of conflict today? Do you support these behaviors?

Reply Engr. Md. Altaf Hossain says: November 18, 2012 at 9:37 am

To be studied

Reply Phil Pitman says: November 18, 2012 at 10:05 pm

Would it be true to say that Palastine is the worlds largest refugee camp?

Reply Helen says: November 19, 2012 at 12:19 am

I get very scared when I read that people get their facts from watching documentaries on Al Jezeera. Sheesh. And you are worried about Jewish propaganda! What do you think Al Jazeera is? Do you know how many times it is shown on Al Jazeera Palestinians burying their children supposedly killed by IDF, only to be exposed by the IDF as dolls wrapped in sheaths and buried in the ground to capture the media’s attention. And if this website was sponsored by Muslims you can bet any opposing opinions would not be posted here-at least Jews believe in democracy even when you Al Jazeera quoting “intellects” obviously have no unbiased facts to base your own arguments on. If Israel became a Muslim country it would only be a matter of time before your churches were destroyed, your holy town of Bethlehem off limits and you would all be forced to wear burkas and keep your daughters from going to school unless she came from a very rich and influential family. That is a fact. Look at every Muslim country to date.

Reply Helen says: November 19, 2012 at 12:29 am

And I really liked your commentary @Someone.

Reply Marc says: November 19, 2012 at 8:52 am

What needs to be understood is that The Land of Israel always was, that is why Moses parted the Red Sea to bring the Israelites back home. It wasn’t called the land of Palestine however. They can’t even get along and have or get out of their own way, a unified front on any issue except eradication of Israel, which is a mandate for war on all levels. They start the crap and then stand back puzzled because there is a response. they look for sympathy but take no responsibility for their actions at all, which forced the responses.

Reply Doomed says: November 21, 2012 at 1:31 am

Hey god just visited me and said I own the Earth and everyone has to do as I say.

Now you just have to take my word for it ok? So hand it all over or he will be pissed with you.

Sounds stupid in this day and age doesn’t it?
Nobody would accept Caspar the ghost as an excuse for my actions would they?
It’s 2012, we have science and such now, when has god shown up and announced to the world he is indeed given this or that to anyone????
Oh a few thousand years ago and only with someones say so.

We all have to live on this rock, nations, borders and dare I say it religion are man made things. Remove the oceans and you’ll see all the continents are joined underneath. That we all breathe the same air and drink the same water that has been drank and pissed back out for millions of years by humans of all walks of life and the animals we share the world with.

I mean god? Which one? Ganesh, Allah, Yewah, God, Ra…….etc etc.
From the civilized people of the world living in the present and not in biblical times, please cut this crap out, we’re getting tired of dealing with your petty wars and nonsense that have gone on for thousands of years over who “friendly ghost” is the best.
Men now travel to space, no god has stepped forward and made themselves known. It’s time to get along, because again, those dictated by logic and common sense are really sick of the bullshit from both sides.

Facts? The only fact is we’re all humans, and we all have to live here. What harms us harms others, so if we do not like something done to us, don’t do it to others. Those are the only facts we need.
If the nations cannot get it together themselves, the rest of the civilized world should just cut off ties and let them wipe each other out once and for all.
Stop dragging dragging the rest us into your stupid illogical fights.

Reply Doomed says: November 21, 2012 at 1:33 am

What’s even sillier with the god argument is that Jews, Muslims and Christians all worship the dame one. Yeah I really think he wanted his creations all killing each other over a world he/she created for all.

Shelley Peck says: November 21, 2012 at 7:23 pm

Arabs and Jews lived side by side for centuries. Yes, they probably had their problems and differences. But they were both “there.”

I wonder how any of us would feel if the Government came to our home and said, “We are moving a family of homeless people into your house. You will have one bedroom. The new tenants will have a bedroom, bathroom, and kitchen. If you wish to use those facilities, you will have to get permission from the new tenants. They will have control of the driveway, also. So you will have to ask them for permission to drive to work.”

You say, “But I’ve lived in this house for 40 years!” The Governments says, ‘Too bad. These people need a home they can call their own. Deal with it.”

By the way, International Law states that one cannot occupy another country won in war.

Reply Shlomi says: November 22, 2012 at 6:09 pm

I’ve read most of these I’ve done a lot of research from both, first off history has plenty of times when people fight for land and of course someone wins, that’s it Israel keeps fighting and keeps winning. people can say the us helps Israel yes, but Russia and all the other Muslim countries can easily help Palestine. everyone is talking about history the problem is Muslims believe in a different history than Jews because they go by their own book, a book that was REWRITTEN from the Old Testament, how does it make sense to believe everything from a religious book that came 1,000s of years after the Old Testament?? Wouldn’t you expect the older religion would know more about the history since its been around much longer? also people call Israel terrorist , who are doing suicide bombings? not only in Israel but also in Europe countries? I don’t mean to be racist but most are radical Muslim groups. If Arabs didn’t get along with Jews in Israel than why do they live there? oh yeah they are treated equally with jobs and health when in their own country they wouldn’t have half as many rights. Does it make sense for Palestine to use the money they get from the US only on weapons? what does Israel do with the money given to them? they make schools buildings and a better place.Legit facts are that in other Muslim countries they have Genocide for years, but Israel is looked at negatively? Maybe they took the land but if u look at history many different areas have been occupied by many different countries, so why are we still fighting about Israel? I don’t see British fighting with America like come on get over it war is war one wins and takes over that’s it. Innocent people died in Palestine and innocent people died in Israel difference is Palestine use their own citizens does that make any sense? the problem is the government, clearly there are suicide bombings in Israel every so often. so wtf how is Israel terrorist? did u know before Israel attacks they let the Palestine civilians AND the Hamas know to leave the area, what does Hamas do? they just bomb cities. I’m not here to talk about the history because clearly every religion believes in a different history, you have to go by the facts of what’s happening now. 12-13 year old kids r forced to be strapped in a bomb to kill civilians, stop being so ignorant and naive, go to Israel and u will see Arabs and Jews get along, they hide in shelters together, they work together, if Israel was so damn “against” Palestine they would clearly start a genocide IN Israel just like the other Muslim countries has had AGAINST Palestine

Reply Robin says: November 28, 2012 at 1:18 pm

The bible is clear on the ownership of those lands. Israel has suffered much and is now one again. There is plenty of land to go around. It’s merely hatred that fuels this war. This hate must end as it’s a cancer upon the world.

Reply Bob says: November 29, 2012 at 1:02 am

Psalms 2;” Why do the nations rage and the people imagine a vain thing? ” The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob will have the last say. He made a covenant with Abraham; God can’t lie. Israel is back just like He promised and all that has been promised will come to pass. Pray for the Peace of Jerusalem.

Reply timothy andersen says: November 30, 2012 at 12:51 am

Al Jazeera media- LMAO, now this is such a reliable media. This brainwashing broadcast station. The station that broadcasts nothing but BS! Anybody who listens to Al Jazeera and believe it is the truth is naive moron.

Reply mike holmes says: December 1, 2012 at 9:19 pm

If Palestine never existed then you would not be using the word Palestine to describe something that never existed.

Reply mike holmes says: December 1, 2012 at 9:27 pm

If Israel belongs to the Jews because God gave it to them as some claim, that is a great argument which is impossible to dispute. Unless of course you have a different God then by the same logic you are entirely justified in arguing it is your land given to you by your god. Which is precisely what some of the other inhabitants of Israel or Palesitine, call it what you will, claim, and by which they justify all their deeds. Maybe it wasn’t such a good argument after all.

Reply jaymie says: December 3, 2012 at 9:52 am

International Law says that no country can take territories, because they can never hold de jure rights. Israel seeks to use International Laws only when it benefits them, however when it comes to committing atrocities to acquire lands beyond its borders it makes up new laws that only Israel recognizes, but in the International community is known to be illegal. It does not matter what is said or done, the fact is that Israel is creating this problem and putting everyone in that region in turmoil. Even the people of Israel want peace and respect in the world. How can this happen if it sees itself as beyond law, above everyone? That it is so special that it can kill, murder, terrorize, and oppress innocent children, cultures, people? A problem is that the men who are dictating these atrocities keep getting voted as the leaders of Israel. When are the good, God-loving, moral, majority of the Israel nation going to stand up and protest against their government and elect officials who truly want peace and will work tirelessly to create it??? My heart breaks for the good people of Palestine and Israel, they deserve new leadership ones that any god would be proud of. This conflict for sure is not one that could be written into the biblical history. It is closer to the ones written about in history books like Hitler. Only now, we have the Jew as perpetrator.

Reply Nick says: December 3, 2012 at 8:16 pm

I would ask anyone who appears to be overly emotional about this site to stop and think. The moderators are publishing a wide range of comments, and I haven’t seen any of these pointing out an error. There’s an awful lot of hatred directed at Israel generally and on here yet I do not see the same passion directed at the way other countries in the region treat their Jewish and Christian populations. Coming from a mixed faith family, I have witnessed the extreme hatred that many Muslims in the UK have of Jewish people and I can well understand the need of the Israeli state to protect its population from these people in the region. I think it is important to realise the status of Jews and Christians under Islam and the way these groups have been poorly treated in the past and in the present, albeit with a few exceptions. Everybody wants a fair solution, but a weak Israel is not the way. I truly beleive this would only lead to a second holocaust, this time at the hands of Muslims.

Reply Leave a Reply Cancel reply

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>

© 2012 palestinefacts.org. All rights reserved worldwide.

Palestine Chronicle | Latest News, Palestine, Middle East, Commentary & Analysis Home Articles News Videos About Us Support Us Contact Us Wednesday, January 16, 2013 - Updated January 15 at 7:26 am Home Articles News Videos About Us Support Us Contact Us How 20 Tents Rocked Israel: Palestinians Take the Fight to Their Occupiers

By Jonathan Cook – Nazareth When the Palestinian leadership won their upgrade to non-member observer status at the United Nations…

Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe – Book Review

Reviewed by Eric Walberg (Anne Applebaum, Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944-1956, USA: Doubleday, 2012.) The period following…

Israel Evacuates E1 Protest Village, Activists Injured

Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu has pledged to move ahead with building a Jewish settlement in a strategic area of…

Afghan Peace Volunteer: Drones Bury Beautiful Lives

By Kathy Kelly – Kabul (Below is a transcript of an interview with Raz Mohammad, an Afghan Peace Volunteer, with…

West Bank: Aid Agencies Tread Gingerly in Area C

As night descends in the Jordan Valley in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), a family in the village of Ras…

Articles Syria: the Cold War Continues

By Shafiq Morton With the Syrian death toll (consisting mainly of civilians) rising to 60,000 according to the UN, the 21 month-old uprising – which…

Jan 14 2013 / Read More »/ How 20 Tents Rocked Israel: Palestinians Take the Fight to Their Occupiers

By Jonathan Cook – Nazareth When the Palestinian leadership won their upgrade to non-member observer status at the United Nations in November, plenty of skeptics…

Jan 14 2013 / Read More »/ Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe – Book Review

Reviewed by Eric Walberg (Anne Applebaum, Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944-1956, USA: Doubleday, 2012.) The period following WWII in eastern Europe is…

Jan 14 2013 / Read More »/ Afghan Peace Volunteer: Drones Bury Beautiful Lives

By Kathy Kelly – Kabul (Below is a transcript of an interview with Raz Mohammad, an Afghan Peace Volunteer, with questions prepared by Maya Evans…

Jan 13 2013 / Read More »/ West Bank: Aid Agencies Tread Gingerly in Area C

As night descends in the Jordan Valley in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), a family in the village of Ras Al-Ahmar lights a small paraffin…

Jan 12 2013 / Read More »/ Video: 5 Broken Cameras

A documentary on a Palestinian farmer’s chronicle of his resistance to the actions of the Israeli army.…

Jan 12 2013 / Read More »/ FNB, Hamas and Al Aqsa Saga: War on Terror in Johannesburg?

By Iqbal Jassat What explains the decision by First National Bank of South Africa (FNBSA) to close the banking account of Johannesburg-based Al Aqsa Foundation?…

Jan 12 2013 / Read More »/ Seeking Security in Afghanistan

By Martha Hennessy and Kathy Kelly This week, in Washington, D.C., Presidents Obama and Karzai will discuss a proposed Bilateral Security Agreement between Afghanistan and…

Jan 12 2013 / Read More »/ ‘My Family Is Living through Hell:’ Samer Issawi Speaks from Jail

By Shahd Abusalama – Gaza I can’t kick the bad habit of biting my fingers when I’m stressed despite my constant attempts. My forefinger is…

Jan 10 2013 / Read More »/ Welcome, Chuck

By Uri Avnery I find Chuck Hagel eminently likeable. I am not quite certain why. Perhaps it’s his war record. He was decorated for valor…

Jan 10 2013 / Read More »/ Latest Headlines Syria: the Cold War Continues Egypt Resumes Qatar Fuel Shipments to Gaza How 20 Tents Rocked Israel: Palestinians Take the Fight to Their Occupiers Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe – Book Review Israel Evacuates E1 Protest Village, Activists Injured Afghan Peace Volunteer: Drones Bury Beautiful Lives Israeli Forces Shoot, Kill Worker South of Hebron Israel Orders Palestinian E1 Tent Evacuation News Egypt Resumes Qatar Fuel Shipments to Gaza Israel Evacuates E1 Protest Village, Activists Injured Israeli Forces Shoot, Kill Worker South of Hebron Israel Orders Palestinian E1 Tent Evacuation Abbas and Meshaal in Cairo for Talks Winter Storms Pound Levant Region Nablus Gunmen Warn PA Security Services Abbas and Meshaal in Cairo for Talks Rights Groups Concerned by Gaza Death in Custody Call for Yarmouk Truce as Aid Crisis Grows in Jordan Videos Videos Video: 5 Broken Cameras Video: The General’s Son Video: Gaza Marathon 2013 Now Open for Runners Video: Israeli Army Killing Palestinian Protestors with Impunity Video: Where Should the Birds Fly? Cartoons Gaza Under Fire   Support Us

No progress bars found

Newsletter

The Palestinian Authority Log In Register Now Help Home Page Today's Paper Video Most Popular Times Topics Search All NYTimes.com Wednesday, January 16, 2013 Times Topics World U.S. N.Y. / Region Business Technology Science Health Sports Opinion Arts Style Travel Jobs Real Estate Autos Advertise on NYTimes.com Report an Error E-MAIL The Palestinian Authority

Updated: Jan. 4, 2013

U.N. Grants Palestine Status of Nonmember Observer State

On Nov. 29, 2012, the United Nations granted Palestine recognition as a nonmember observer state, in a defeat for Israel and the United States and a boost for the Palestinian Authority and its president, Mahmoud  Abbas, who had been weakened by the recent eight days of fighting in Gaza.

The new ranking could make it easier for the Palestinians to pursue Israel in international legal forums, but it remained unclear what effect it would have on attaining what both sides say they want — a two-state solution.

Still, the vote offered a showcase for an extraordinary international lineup of support for the Palestinians and constituted a deeply symbolic achievement for their cause, made even weightier by arriving on the 65th anniversary of the General Assembly vote that divided the former British Mandate of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and the other Arab — a vote that Israel considers the international seal of approval for its birth.

The tally, in which 138 members voted yes, 9 voted no and 41 abstained, took place after a speech by Mr. Abbas to the General Assembly, in which he called the moment a “last chance” to save the two-state solution amid a narrowing window of opportunity.

But Ron Prosor, the Israeli ambassador to the United Nations, said before the vote was taken that the United Nations resolution would do nothing to advance the peace process. “Today the Palestinians are turning their back on peace,” Mr. Prosor said. “Don’t let history record that today the U.N. helped them along on their march of folly.”

The vote had been expected to win backing from a number of European countries, and was a rebuff to intense American and Israeli diplomacy. Among the countries that had said in advance that they would vote for the resolution were France, Spain and Switzerland. Others, like Germany, had said they would abstain, and a few countries joined Israel and the United States in voting no.

The vote came shortly after an eight-day Israeli military assault on Gaza that Israel described as a response to stepped-up rocket fire into Israel. The operation killed scores of Palestinians and was aimed at reducing the arsenal of Hamas, the militant group that controls Gaza, part of the territory that the United Nations resolution expects to make up a future state of Palestine.

A major concern for the Americans is that the Palestinians might use their new status to try to join the International Criminal Court. That prospect particularly worries the Israelis, who fear that the Palestinians might press for an investigation of their practices in the occupied territories.

Another worry is that the Palestinians might use the vote to seek membership in specialized agencies of the United Nations, a move that could have consequences for the financing of the international organizations as well as the Palestinian Authority itself.

The Gaza Conflict

On Nov. 14, 2012, Israel launched a series of withering air strikes against targets in the Gaza Strip associated with Hamas, the militant party that has ruled Gaza since its gunman seized control from the Palestinian Authority in 2007.

In the days that followed, the Palestinian Authority and its president, Mahmoud  Abbas, found themselves uncomfortably on the sidelines as Hamas rallied Egypt, Turkey, Qatar and other Arab countries to its cause.

The cease-fire announced in Cairo on Nov. 21 was met with jubilation by Palestinians belonging to all factions and led to plans for a new round of unification talks. Hamas, despite the massive task of rebuilding it faces, clearly gained new momentum in its rivalry with Fatah, Mr. Abbas’s party.

For more on Gaza and the fighting, click here.

Fatah Supporters Rally in Gaza

In January 2013, hundreds of thousands of Fatah supporters rallied in Gaza, the latest in a series of signals heralding possible reconciliation between the parties after their bitter five-year rift.

The rally, which came on the heels of Hamas celebrations the previous month in the Fatah-dominated West Bank, added momentum to what Palestinian leaders consider their twin victories in November: Hamas’s firing rockets into Israeli population centers of Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, and the Palestine Liberation Organization’s upgrade to nonmember observer state status at the United Nations.

Read More...

But many obstacles still remain before the sides can settle their differences, chief among them how to deal with Israel.

Still, both sides expressed optimism following the Fatah rally that included hours of waving yellow flags, dancing in the streets and chanting party slogans. For years, Fatah loyalists in Gaza faced retribution from the Hamas regime, which banned them from gathering.

President Abbas did not attend the event, but he addressed the crowd on a large screen telling them “there is no substitute for national unity.” Hamas Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh also expressed hope that the two factions could reconcile their differences, sending Fatah a message that he hoped they could work together as joint representatives of the Palestinian people, according to a Fatah official. Hamas was not directly involved in the event.

Israel and the United States have expressed deep concerns about the prospect of reconciliation, particularly now that an emboldened Gaza leadership feels it has the upper hand. In December 2012, after Hamas political chief Khaled Meshal promised at his own huge Gaza rally to liberate Palestine “from the river to the sea,” Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel condemned Mr. Abbas for considering a full partnership with him.

Analysts noted that Fatah and Hamas have signed no fewer than four peace pacts in the past five years, none of which have been fulfilled, and that those agreements call for establishing a national unity government, holding presidential and parliamentary elections and reconstituting the Palestine Liberation Organization to include Hamas, among other things.

Overview

The Palestinian Authority was created by the 1993 Oslo peace accords between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization. It was meant to be a provisional government of the occupied territories in Gaza and the West Bank, which would eventually be replaced by a sovereign Palestinian state after a final settlement was reached with Israel.

No final settlement was reached, however, and in 2007 the Palestinian Authority lost control of half of its territory. The Fatah party, founded by Yasir Arafat, the Authority’s president until his death in 2004, was beaten in parliamentary elections in 2006 by Hamas, the militant group, and the following year Hamas gunmen drove Fatah out of Gaza and set up its own government there.

The split left the Palestinian Authority in control only of portions of the West Bank. Some 60 percent of the West Bank is under full Israeli control, and both the Palestinians and the Israelis claim East Jerusalem, which is now in Israeli hands.

Over the years, repeated rounds of negotiations meant to bring about the final settlement have made little progress, although former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Mr. Abbas, the current Palestinian president, said later that they had been on the verge of a sweeping deal when Mr. Olmert was forced from office in 2008.

Talks with Israel stalled again in September 2010. Mr. Abbas said he would not negotiate while Israel continued to build on occupied lands, and the Israeli prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, declined to renew a construction moratorium that expired three weeks after the talks began.

In 2011, as the revolts of the Arab Spring swept through the region, Mr. Abbas all but abandoned the possibility of productive negotiations with Israel and focused on two new tracks — winning United Nations recognition of full Palestinian statehood and healing the rift with Hamas.

2011: Formal Request for U.N. Membership

In 2011, with change sweeping the Arab world and convinced that talks with Israel were unlikely to resume, Mr. Abbas began focusing on getting the United Nations to recognize Palestine as a sovereign state. It was hoped that this would increase Palestinian leverage for rolling back Israeli settlements.

Full membership in the United Nations would require the approval of the Security Council, where the United States promised a veto. But the General Assembly can on its own grant status as an observer state. Even that limited step would give the Palestinians greater access to international forums and to institutions like the World Bank.

Israel vehemently opposed the idea, saying it would amount to a unilateral repudiation of the Olso agreements. The American-Israeli view was that the only way to achieve peace is through direct talks, although each side maintained that the other presents the obstacles to negotiations.

Mr. Abbas made the formal request for full United Nations membership as a path toward statehood on Sept. 23 when he appeared before the General Assembly.

In October, Hamas received a boost when Israel agreed to exchange more than 1,000 Palestinian prisoners for an Israeli soldier held captive in Gaza for five years, Staff Sgt. Gilad Shalit, in a deal brokered by Egypt that left Mr. Abbas on the sidelines.

Later that month, Unesco — the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization — defied a legally mandated cutoff of American financing and approved a Palestinian bid for full membership by a vote of 107 to 14, with 52 abstentions.

However, the Palestinians’ bid for recognition ultimately failed, even without an American veto. In November, in a private meeting of Security Council members, France and Bosnia said they would abstain on a vote, which would leave the Palestinians short of the nine votes needed in favor.

Also in November, to protest the Palestinians’ membership efforts at the United Nations and pursuit of power-sharing with Hamas, Israel carried out a threat to suspend the transfer of about $100 million in tax payments to the Palestinian Authority. On Nov. 30,  under strong American and international pressure, Israel agreed to transfer the money.

A Splintering of the Palestinian Movement

In May 2011, Mr. Abbas and leaders of Hamas signed a historic reconciliation agreement, vowing common cause against Israeli occupation. Then, in February 2012, Mr. Abbas and Khaled Meshal, the leader of Hamas, announced that they had broken a long political deadlock to form an interim unity government led, at least at first, by Mr. Abbas.

Nevertheless, as spring 2012 approached, the Palestinian leadership found itself orphaned within the region, marginalized by the attention drawn by the Arab revolts and the rising tensions over Iran’s nuclear program.

The Arab Spring may have increased popular attention to the Palestinian cause, freeing Egyptians and others to express anti-Israel sentiments. But that has actually made things harder on the Palestine Liberation Organization, which negotiated with Israel. Popular affection shifted to Hamas. Yet they, too, have had difficulties: they abandoned their political headquarters in Syria, faced reduced help from Iran and had to contend with increased divisions within the organization.

The result was a serial splintering of the Palestinian movement, a loss of state sponsors and paralysis for those trying to build a state next to Israel. As momentum for a peaceful two-state solution fades, no alternatives have emerged and attention has focused on other conflicts.

An Imposed Palestinian Border?

In late May 2012, Israel’s defense minister, Ehud Barak, said that Israel should consider imposing the borders of a future Palestinian state, becoming the most senior government official to suggest bypassing a stagnant peace process.

Speaking at a conference in Tel Aviv sponsored by the Institute for National Security Studies, a respected research center that is close to the military and security establishment, Mr. Barak called for “an interim agreement, maybe even unilateral action.” Referring to fears that Jews will become a minority in their own state, he added, “Inaction is not a possibility.”

“Israel cannot afford stagnation,” Mr. Barak said. “It will be a difficult decision to make, but the time is running out.” He did not offer any specifics, but echoed an emerging chorus of political leaders, analysts and intellectuals who have said that Israel needs to put in effect its own settlement to the Palestinian crisis.

Calls for direct action are based on the arguments that negotiations are no longer feasible because of enduring political divisions on both sides and the changing dynamics inspired by the Arab Spring, which demand that leaders take more populist positions in line with anti-Israel public sentiment. But some advocates of this approach have also said that they believe the door should remain open to negotiations, suggesting that unilateral steps could be phased in over many years and be designed, in part, to give Israel a stronger hand in final status talks.

The Palestinian Authority has opposed any effort by Israel to decree the contours of its territory and abandon a negotiated settlement on a wide variety of issues, including the future of Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority, however, did take its own unilateral steps in 2011, when it pursued United Nations recognition, something it is considering doing again. Israel has criticized such efforts for stepping outside the bounds of negotiations. The Obama administration has strongly opposed unilateral action by either side, and some senior Israeli officials have worried that such a move by Israel could provoke an uprising by Palestinians.

Economic Troubles

As the Palestinian Authority marks the 19th anniversary in September 2012 of the signing of the Oslo Accords, the authority is facing a financial crisis that experts say could threaten its future operations and stability.

The International Monetary Fund said in 2011 that the Western-backed authority had built the institutions and sound fiscal policies for running the economy of a future state. According to Oussama Kanaan, the fund’s mission chief for the West Bank and Gaza, nothing has changed on that count.

But there is no state in sight and the Oslo Accords, which were meant as interim arrangements giving the Palestinians limited self-rule, have stretched on for nearly two decades, perpetuating what critics say are conditions that are now limiting economic development. The authority needs $400 million in immediate assistance to cover a gap in its 2012 budget and has been confronted with growing public outrage over austerity measures and steep price increases driven largely by outside forces.

Beyond that, though, to build a sustained economic recovery, reduce unemployment and support the authority’s reforms, Mr. Kanaan said, it is essential that the restrictions that Israel places on Palestinian trade and movement be eased and that donors provide adequate aid.

Mr. Kanaan based his assessment on the results of a recent fact-finding trip to the Palestinian territories. A report on those findings will be presented at a donors’ conference at the United Nations.

The report will state that the West Bank-based Palestinian Authority faces “serious risks,” including an inability to make essential payments, like salaries, with all the implications that has for stability. The authority employs about 180,000 Palestinians, among them the security forces. Those employees, in turn, support relatives estimated to include about a quarter of the population of the Palestinian territories, including the Gaza Strip. In June, July and August, the authority was unable to pay its employees their full salaries on time.

Over the previous two years the West Bank experienced an economic slowdown, with real G.D.P. growth declining to about 5 percent from an annual average rate of 9 percent in 2008-2010, the study found. Unemployment has reached 19 percent in the West Bank and as much as 30 percent in Gaza. The authority’s severe financing difficulties over the previous 20 months led to a substantial rise in domestic payment arrears and debt to commercial banks.

Although the authority reduced its reliance on international aid after economic reforms — to $1.1 billion in 2010 from $1.8 billion in 2008 — the amount received since then has not been sufficient to fulfill requirements. Much of the shortfall is due to a drop in aid from Arab countries, according to officials. In both 2008 and 2009, Arab donors disbursed $500 million, but in 2011 and up until September 2012, the amount dropped to more like $200 million.

The Palestinian Authority is reeling under the pressure. Shaken by days of popular protests over fuel price increases and the rising cost of living, the government hastily backtracked in September 2012 on some of the austerity measures it had taken, like a raise in taxes.

Much of the anger has been directed against Salam Fayyad, the prime minister of the authority.

“We are doing the best we can, and we have been all along,” Mr. Fayyad said after announcing the steps aimed at calming the protests.

Hide

ARTICLES ABOUT THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY Newest First | Oldest First Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | Next >> Israeli Soldiers Kill Palestinian at Barrier By ISABEL KERSHNER;

The shooting of a teenager along Gaza’s border with Israel underscored the potential for spiraling violence after weeks of restiveness in the area.

January 16, 2013, Wednesday MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Palestinian Authority, Abbas, Mahmoud, Palestinians, Ramallah (West Bank), Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank Financial Crisis in the West Bank

Arab states have a responsibility to make sure the Palestinian Authority remains viable.

January 11, 2013, Friday MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Palestinian Authority, Fayyad, Salam, Economic Conditions and Trends, Foreign Aid, Palestinians, Editorials, West Bank Abbas and Hamas Leader Meet at Egypt’s Invitation By JODI RUDOREN

President Mahmoud Abbas of the Palestinian Authority met in Cairo with Khaled Meshal, Hamas’s political chief, but little progress was apparently made in resolving their five-year feud.

January 10, 2013, Thursday MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Hamas, Palestinian Authority, Meshal, Khaled, Abbas, Mahmoud, International Relations, Middle East and North Africa Unrest (2010- ), Israel, Egypt Palestinian Authority in Crisis Over Finances, Premier Says By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

The government’s dire straits have largely been caused by the failure of Arab countries to send aid, Prime Minister Salam Fayyad said.

January 7, 2013, Monday MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Palestinian Authority, Fayyad, Salam, Foreign Aid, Israel Israel’s Dilemma in Dealing With the Palestinians

The Anti-Defamation League responds to an editorial’s criticism of Israeli actions.

December 27, 2012, Thursday MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Palestinian Authority, Abbas, Mahmoud, Palestinians, Israel The Fading Mideast Peace Dream

Israel’s push to build settlements in the West Bank and Jerusalem only empowers Hamas and spells doom for a two-state solution.

December 21, 2012, Friday MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Palestinian Authority, Hamas, Abbas, Mahmoud, Netanyahu, Benjamin, Editorials, Israeli Settlements, Palestinians, West Bank, Israel Palestinian Premier Calls for Boycott of Israeli Goods By ISABEL KERSHNER

Israel’s refusal this month to transfer tax revenue to the West Bank has undermined the Palestinian Authority’s already dire finances, the prime minister, Salam Fayyad, said.

December 21, 2012, Friday MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Palestinian Authority, United Nations, Fayyad, Salam, Boycotts, Palestinians, West Bank, Israel Opinion Report: Israel's Aggressive Misstep By ANDREW ROSENTHAL

A summary of what's on today's editorial page.

December 4, 2012 MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Palestinian Authority, Republican Party, Israel, Long Island (NY) No Road Leads to Jerusalem By RAJA SHEHADEH

In the West Bank, the celebrations for Palestine's new U.N. status began long before the vote was taken, but I felt no euphoria around me.

December 4, 2012 MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Hamas, Palestinian Authority, United Nations, Palestinians, Israeli Settlements, International Relations, Ramallah (West Bank) Action-Overreaction By SHMUEL ROSNER

The Palestinians upgrade their status at the U.N. — and Israel compounds that defeat with self-punishment.

December 4, 2012 MORE ON PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY AND: Hamas, Palestinian Authority, United Nations, Fayyad, Salam, Netanyahu, Benjamin, Abbas, Mahmoud, Palestinians, Israeli Settlements, International Relations, Israel

SEARCH 939 ARTICLES ABOUT THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY :

Match Any Word Match All Words Match Exact Phrase Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | Next >> Headlines Around the Web What's This? Jihad Watch

January 15, 2013

U.S. judge rules that Palestinian Authority has right to cover up memo linking it to jihad-martyrdom suicide murder of two teens news.yahoo.com

January 15, 2013

Palestinians demand salaries as sanctions, cash crisis bite Harry's Place

January 15, 2013

Facebook 'censors' Palestinian writer posting anti-corruption articles Investigative Project on Terrorism

January 14, 2013

Palestinian President Abbas Praises Dead Terrorists As 'Martyrs' The Corner on National Review Online

January 14, 2013

Please Ignore the Fact We Admitted to Terrorism

More at Blogrunner »

Multimedia Leaders Gather for Mideast Talks

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Mahmoud Abbas of the Palestinian Authority appeared together Wednesday with President Obama, who urged the leaders to produce “lasting change” during their peace talks in Washington.

More Multimedia »

Multimedia Multimedia Feature Challenges in Defining an Israeli-Palestinian Border

There are major hurdles in drawing borders between Israel and a future Palestine.

The Palestinian Authority Navigator

A list of resources from around the Web about the Palestinian Authority as selected by researchers and editors of The New York Times.

A Chronology of Palestine Palestinian American Research Center Statistical Atlas of Palestine Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics Palestinian News Media Archive MEMRI: Middle East Media Research Institute Country Brief: West Bank and Gaza The World Bank West Bank & Gaza Data At-a-Glance The World Bank Palestine Facts, Personalities and Maps Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs Fast Facts about Palestine Palestinian Ministry of Tourism Documents Developments in the Economy of the Occupied Palestinian Territory U.N. Conference on Trade and Development, September 2011 Human Rights in the Palestinian Authority Amnesty International Annual Report [2011] West Bank and Gaza: Improving Governance and Reducing Corruption The World Bank, June 2011 U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians Congressional Research Service [via FAS], May 31, 2011 Building the Palestinian State: Sustaining Growth, Institutions and Service Delivery The World Bank, April 13, 2011 Books The Balfour Declaration: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict By Jonathan Schneer (2010) One State, Two States: Resolving the Israel/Palestine Conflict By Benny Morris (2009) Once Upon a Country: A Palestinian Life By Sari Nusseibeh with Anthony David (2007) Palestine: Peace not Apartheid By Jimmy Carter (2006) One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs under the British Mandate By Tom Segev (2000) The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World Since 1948 By Avi Shlaim (1999) Video Prospects for Palestinian Statehood Council on Foreign Relations The Arc: Helping a Palestinian State Succeed Rand Corporation Other Coverage Membership Dues The New Yorker, Sept 26, 2011 No to the Palestinian ‘State’ National Review Online, Sept 19, 2011 The UN and US Should Recognize a Palestinian State Andrew Sullivan / The Daily Beast, Sept 9, 2011 Palestinian Statehood Resolution Sets Off Alarm Bells in Israel and Washington Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, August 2011

 

Related Topics
Israel Gaza Strip Fatah Hamas Benjamin Netanyahu Mahmoud Abbas Syria MOST POPULAR E-Mailed Searched Well: That Loving Feeling Takes a Lot of Work American Single-Malt Whiskeys Serve Notice Bandages Not Included Well: How to Go Vegan Opinion: Hypochondria: An Inside Look Parents’ Financial Support May Not Help College Grades Recipes for Health: Sicilian Cauliflower and Black Olive Gratin The End of Courtship? Op-Ed Columnist: Obama’s 1-2 Punch? This Was Supposed to Be My Column for New Year’s Day Go to Complete List » june 10, 2012 china teacher job bill google facebook food and fadwa tony awards mad men maureen dowd paul krugman Go to Complete List » Toasting and grinding spices

Also in Video »

Melissa Clark shows us how to make lemon ricotta cookies Mark Bittman shows us how to cook a steak
Rss Feeds On The Palestinian Authority

Subscribe to an RSS feed on this topic. What is RSS?

The Palestinian Authority Get Alerts On The Palestinian Authority

Receive My Alerts e-mails on topics covered on this page.

PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY More Alerts » © 2013 The New York Times Company Site Map Privacy Your Ad Choices Advertise Terms of Sale Terms of Service Work With Us RSS Help Contact Us Site Feedback Manage My Account News Tracker Create Alert Manage Alerts

TRAVEL PALESTINE Skip to navigation Skip to main content Skip to primary sidebar Skip to secondary sidebar Skip to footer TRAVEL PALESTINE The Official Site for Tourism in Palestine ABOUT Fast Facts Travel Essentials Culture and Heritage EXPLORE Destinations Jerusalem Bethlehem Jericho Ramallah Nablus Jenin and The North Hebron Gaza The Jerusalem Wilderness The Dead Sea Activities Christian Pilgrimage Islamic Pilgrimage Museums & Cultural Centers Shopping Dinning Out Walking Biking Bird Watching Learn Arabic and More Desert Stays Live the Dead Sea Travel Ideas What to Do What to See Where to Stay What’s New Suggested Itineraries Palestine Travel Specialists Experience Palestine Events Latest Events Calendar of Events PLAN Accommodation Palestine Travel Specialists HOME You Tube Twitter Facebook Welcome to Palestine’s Official Tourism Website

Welcome to Palestine, the cradle of civilization, where West meets East, North meets South, and where Judaism, Christianity, and Islam took form.  We welcome you in Palestine and hope that you enjoy our cultural richness, deeply compelling history, and legendary hospitality.  Over the centuries millions of people have come to visit this beautiful Holy Land and we are glad to welcome you among them.  Ahlan Wa Sahlan

I CHRISTMAS IN BETHLEHEM

It is already December and the little town of Bethlehem, the birthplace of Jesus Christ, is getting ready for the most important celebration. Christmas lights and banners are hoisted all around the city. Christmas carols can be heard everywhere in the crowded Manger Square. The whole city shares in the traditional procession of the Patriarch… Continue reading →

PALESTINE TOP 10 FOR FIRST-TIMERS

Round up the best of Palestine – the holy shrines, the historical treasures, the hospitality, the folklore, the hiking, the biking, the culture, the handicrafts, the food, the beer – and you have the building blocks for one of the most interesting journeys you’ll ever take. While so many things in Palestine are interesting, some things are better defined as ‘surprising!’ We’ve selected a collection of Palestine’s Most Interesting for First-timers … Continue reading →

THINGS TO DO A DAY IN RAMALLAH

Most first-time visitors to Palestine will stick to highlights like the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, the Old City and Mount of Olives in Jerusalem, and Tel Es-Sultan and Quarantine in Jericho. But for those that have been to … Continue reading →

BIKE PALESTINE

People choosing to explore pedal power can enjoy tracks in an enchanted landscape rich in history; immersed in the breathtaking Biblical landscape, taking the ancient roads from the quiet of the Jerusalem Wilderness desert to the majesty of the Dead … Continue reading →

DESTINATIONS


View Larger Map █ Jerusalem: The Heart of the Holy Land
█ Bethlehem: The City of the Nativity
█ Jericho: The Oldest & Lowest City in the World
█ Ramallah: The City of Culture, Leisure & Gastronomy
█ Nablus: The Uncrowned Queen of Palestine
█ Jenin & The North: The Garden Spring
█ Hebron: The City of the Patriarchs
█ Gaza: The Southern Gate of Palestine
█ The Wilderness
█ The Dead Sea: The Lowest Point on Earth ACCOMMODATION  

Accommodations are not hard to find in Palestine, for Palestine is a place where hospitality is a way of living. Whether you are a comfort traveler or an economic one, Palestinian cities boast an array of hotels and guesthouses as tourists and pilgrims are frequent in this beautiful country.

→ Find accommodation

PALESTINE GUIDE BOOK EXPERIENCE PALESTINE IN PHOTOS Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:LikeBe the first to like this. Search for: Christmas Brochure Twitter Updates I posted 33 photos on Facebook in the album "Palestin in Tour Salon Poznan" fb.me/1APOXslbN 2 months ago fb.me/1IOKJOx0b 3 months ago Oktoberfest in Palestine! It's true... head to the 8th Annual Taybeh Oktoberfest Date: October 6th & 7th, 2012... fb.me/PWwDv0ET 3 months ago Follow @travelpalestineFind us on facebookPlaces You LikeTagsArchaeological Art Bethlehem Biblical Christian Culture Dead Sea Eating Event Folklore Historic Islamic Jericho Jerusalem Nablus Nature Tour Walk WildernessUSEFUL LINKS Partners Websites

Blog at WordPress.com. Theme: Customized Mystique by digitalnature.

Palestine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Palestine From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the historical geographic region. For the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, see Palestinian territories. For the Palestinian state, see State of Palestine. For other uses, see Palestine (disambiguation).   Boundaries of Roman Syria Palaestina, where dashed green line shows the boundary between Byzantine Palaestina Prima (later Jund Filastin) and Palaestina Secunda (later Jund al-Urdunn), as well as Palaestina Salutaris (later Jebel et-Tih and the Jifar)   Borders of Mandatory Palestine   Borders of the Palestinian territories (West Bank and Gaza Strip)

Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين‎ Filasṭīn, Falasṭīn, Filisṭīn; Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina) is a conventional name, among others, for the geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The region is also known as the Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ־ישראל Eretz-Yisra'el),[7] the Holy Land, the Southern Levant,[8] Cisjordan, and historically has been known by other names including Canaan, Southern Syria and Jerusalem.

The boundaries of the region have changed throughout history, and were last defined in modern times by the Franco-British boundary agreement (1920) and the Transjordan memorandum of 16 September 1922, during the mandate period.[9] Today, the region comprises the State of Israel and the Palestinian territories.[9]

Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Overview 2.2 Ancient period 2.3 Classical antiquity 2.4 Middle Ages 2.5 Modern period 3 Boundaries 4 Demographics 4.1 Early demographics 4.2 Late Ottoman and British Mandate periods 4.3 Current demographics 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 7.1 Works written or compiled since 1945 7.2 Works written before 1918 8 External links 8.1 Maps Etymology Further information: Definitions of Palestine and History of the name Palestine

The term Peleset (transliterated from hieroglyphs as P-r-s-t) is found in numerous Egyptian documents referring to a neighboring people or land starting from c.1150 BCE during the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. The first mention is thought to be in texts of the temple at Medinet Habu which record a people called the Peleset among the Sea Peoples who invaded Egypt in Ramesses III's reign.[10] The Assyrians called the same region Palashtu or Pilistu, beginning with Adad-nirari III in the Nimrud Slab in c.800 BCE through to emperor Sargon II in his Annals approximately a century later.[1][11][12] Neither the Egyptian or Assyrian sources provided clear regional boundaries for the term.

The first clear use of the term Palestine to refer to the entire area between Phoenicia and Egypt was in 5th century BC Ancient Greece.[13] Herodotus wrote of a 'district of Syria, called Palaistinê" in The Histories, the first historical work clearly defining the region, which included the Judean mountains and the Jordan Rift Valley.[14][15][16][17][18][19] Approximately a century later, Aristotle used a similar definition in Meteorology, writing "Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink, this would bear out what we have said. They say that this lake is so bitter and salt that no fish live in it and that if you soak clothes in it and shake them it cleans them," understood by scholars to be a reference to the Dead Sea.[20] Later writers such as Polemon and Pausanias also used the term to refer to the same region. This usage was followed by Roman writers such as Ovid, Tibullus, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, Dio Chrysostom, Statius, Plutarch as well as Roman Judean writers Philo of Alexandria and Josephus.[21] Other writers, such as Strabo, a prominent Roman-era geographer (although he wrote in Greek), referred to the region as Coele-Syria around 10–20 CE.[22][23] The term was first used to denote an official province in c.135 CE, when the Roman authorities, following the suppression of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, combined Iudaea Province with Galilee and other surrounding cities such as Ashkelon to form "Syria Palaestina" (Syria Palaestina), which some scholars state was in order to complete the dissociation with Judaea.[24][25]

The Hebrew name Peleshet (פלשת Pəlésheth) – usually translated as Philistia in English, is used in the Bible more than 250 times. The Greek word Palaistinē (Παλαιστίνη, "Palaistine") is generally accepted to be a translation of the Semitic name for Philistia; however another term – land of the Philistieim (γῆ τῶν Φυλιστιεἰμ , transliteration from Hebrew) – was used in the Septuagint, the second century BCE Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, to refer to Philistia.[26] In the Torah / Pentateuch, the term Philistia is used 10 times and its boundaries are undefined. The later Historical books (see Deuteronomistic history) include most of the biblical references, almost 200 of which are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel, where the term is used to denote the southern coastal region to the west of the ancient Kingdom of Judah.[11][12][21][27]

During the Byzantine period, the entire region (Syria Palestine, Samaria, and the Galilee) was named Palaestina, subdivided into provinces Palaestina I and II.[28] The Byzantines also renamed an area of land including the Negev, Sinai, and the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula as Palaestina Salutaris, sometimes called Palaestina III.[28] The Arabic word for Palestine is فلسطين (commonly transcribed in English as Filistin, Filastin, or Falastin).[29] Moshe Sharon writes that when the Arabs took over Greater Syria in the 7th century, place names that were in use by the Byzantine administration before them, generally continued to be used. Hence, he traces the emergence of the Arabic form Filastin to this adoption, with Arabic inflection, of Roman and Hebrew (Semitic) names.[11] Jacob Lassner and Selwyn Ilan Troen offer a different view, writing that Jund Filastin, the full name for the administrative province under the rule of the Arab caliphates, was traced by Muslim geographers back to the Philistines of the Bible.[30] The use of the name "Palestine" in English became more common after the European renaissance.[31] It was officially revived by the British after the fall of the Ottoman Empire and applied to the territory that was placed under The Palestine Mandate.

Some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of this land include Canaan, Greater Israel, Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Judea,[32] Israel, "Israel HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael or Ha'aretz), Zion, Retenu (Ancient Egyptian), Southern Syria, and Syria Palestina.

History Main article: History of Palestine Further information: Time periods in the region of Palestine Overview

Situated at a strategic location between Egypt, Syria and Arabia, and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture, commerce, and politics. The region has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, the Sunni Arab Caliphates, the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, Crusaders, Ayyubids, Mameluks, Ottomans, the British and modern Israelis and Palestinians. Modern archaeologists and historians of the region refer to their field of study as Syro-Palestinian archaeology.

Ancient period Depiction of Biblical Palestine in c.1020 BCE according to George Adam Smith's 1915 Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land. Smith's book was used as a reference by Lloyd George during the negotiations for the British Mandate for Palestine.[33]

The region was among the earliest in the world to see human habitation, agricultural communities and civilization. During the Bronze Age, independent Canaanite city-states were established, and were influenced by the surrounding civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Minoan Crete, and Syria. Between 1550–1400 BCE, the Canaanite cities became vassals to the Egyptian New Kingdom who held power until the 1178 BCE Battle of Djahy (Canaan) during the wider Bronze Age collapse. The Philistines arrived and mingled with the local population, and according to Biblical tradition, the United Kingdom of Israel was established in 1020 BCE and split within a century to form the northern Kingdom of Israel, and the southern Kingdom of Judah. The region became part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from c.740 BCE, which was itself replaced by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in c.627 BCE. According to the Bible, a war with Egypt culminated in 586 BCE when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II and the local leaders of the region of Judea were deported to Babylonia. In 539 BCE, the Babylonian empire was replaced by the Achaemenid Empire. According to the bible and implications from the Cyrus Cylinder, the exiled population of Judea was allowed to return to Jerusalem.

Classical antiquity Palestine in c.100CE according to Ptolemy (map by Claude Reignier Conder of the Palestine Exploration Fund)

In the 330s BCE, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered the region, and the region changed hands numerous times during the wars of the Diadochi. ultimately joining the Seleucid Empire between 219–200 BCE. In 116 BCE, a Seleucid civil war resulted in the independence of certain regions including the minor Hasmonean principality in the Judean Mountains. From 110 BCE, the Hasmoneans extended their authority over much of Palestine, creating a Judean-Samaritan-Idumaean-Ituraean-Galilean alliance. The Judean (Jewish, see Ioudaioi) control over the wider region resulted in its also becoming known as Judaea, a term which had previously only referred to the smaller region of the Judean Mountains. Between 73-63 BCE, the Roman Republic extended its influence in to the region in the Third Mithridatic War, conquering of Judea in 63 BCE, and splitting the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts. The three-year Ministry of Jesus, culminating in his crucifixion, is estimated to have occurred from 28–30 CE, although the historicity of Jesus is disputed by scholars. In 70 CE, Titus sacked Jerusalem, resulting in the dispersal of the city's Jews and Christians to Yavne and Pella. In 132 CE, Hadrian joined the province of Iudaea with Galilee to form new province of Syria Palaestina, and Jerusalem was renamed "Aelia Capitolina". Between 259–272, the region fell under the rule of Odaenathus as King of the Palmyrene Empire. Following the victory of Christian emperor Constantine in the Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy (306–324), the Christianization of the Roman Empire began, and in 326, Constantine's mother Saint Helena visited Jerusalem and began the construction of churches and shrines. Palestine became a center of Christianity, attracting numerous monks and religious scholars. The Samaritan Revolts during this period caused their near extinction. In 614 CE, Palestine was annexed by another Persian dynasty; the Sassanids, until returning to Byzantine control in 628 CE.[34]

Middle Ages Tower of Ramla, constructed in 1318

Palestine was conquered by the Islamic Empire, beginning in 634 CE. In 636 CE, the Battle of Yarmouk during the Muslim conquest of Syria symbolized the complete Muslim takeover of the region, which was regarded as Bilad a-Sham (Greater Syria). The word 'Arab' at the time referred to Bedouin nomads with an Arabian ancestry. The local population engaged in farming, which was considered demeaning, were called Nabaț, referring to Aramaic-speaking villagers. A ḥadīth, brought in the name of a Muslim freedman who settled in Palestine ordered them not to settle in the villages, for he who abides in villages it is as if he abides in graves.'[35] In 661 CE, with the assassination of Ali, Muawiyah I became the uncontested Caliph of the Islamic World after being crowned in Jerusalem. The Dome of the Rock, completed in 691, was the world's first great work of Islamic architecture.[36] The Umayyad were replaced by the Abbasids in 750. Ramla, the major city, became the administrative centre for the following centuries. Tiberias became a thriving centre of Muslim scholarship.[37] From 878, Palestine was ruled from Egypt by semi-autonomous rulers for almost a century, beginning with the Turkish freeman Ahmad ibn Tulun, for whom both Jews and Christians prayed when he lay dying [38] and ending with the Ikhshidid rulers, characterized by persecution of Christians as the threat from Byzantium grew.[39] The Fatimids, with a predominantly Berber army, invaded the region in 970, a date that marks the beginning of a period of unceasing warfare between numerous enemies, which destroyed Palestine, and in particular devastating its Jewish population.[40] In 1073, Palestine was captured by the Great Seljuq Empire, only to be recaptured by the Fatimids in 1098, who then lost the region to the Crusaders in 1099. Their control of Jerusalem and most of Palestine lasted almost a century until defeat by Saladin's forces in 1187, after which most of Palestine was controlled by the Ayyubids. A rump crusader state in the northern coastal cities survived for another century, but, despite seven further crusades, the crusaders were no longer a significant power in the region. The Fourth Crusade led directly to the decline of the Byzantine Empire, dramatically reducing Christian influence throughout the region.

The Mamluk Sultanate was indirectly created in Egypt as a result of the Seventh Crusade. The Mongol Empire reached Palestine for the first time in 1260, beginning with the Mongol raids into Palestine under Nestorian Christian general Kitbuqa, and reaching an apex at the pivotal Battle of Ain Jalut. In 1486, hostilities broke out between the Mamluks and the Ottoman Turks in a battle for control over western Asia, and the Ottomans captured Palestine in 1516.

Modern period Further information: History of Zionism, British Mandate for Palestine, History of Israel, and Sinai and Palestine Campaign 1947 UN Partition Plan for State of Palestine, founded within the greater Palestine region The new era in Palestine. The arrival of Sir Herbert Samuel, H.B.M. High Commissioner with Col. Lawrence, Emir Abdullah, Air Marshal Salmond and Sir Wyndham Deedes, 1920.

In 1830, on the eve of Muhammad Ali's invasion, the Ottoman Porte transferred control of the sanjaks of Jerusalem and Nablus to Abdullah Pasha, the governor of Acre. According to Silverburg, in regional and cultural terms this move was important for creating an Arab Palestine detached from Syria (bilad al-Shams). According to Pappe, it was an attempt to reinforce the Syrian front in face of Muhammad Ali's invasion.[41][42] Two years later, in 1832, Palestine was conquered by Muhammad Ali's Egypt, but in 1840, Britain intervened and returned control of the Levant to the Ottomans in return for further capitulations. The end of the 19th century saw the beginning of Zionist immigration and the Revival of the Hebrew language. The movement was publicly supported by Great Britain during World War I with the Balfour Declaration of 1917.

The British began their Sinai and Palestine Campaign in 1915. The war reached southern Palestine in 1917, progressing to Gaza and around Jerusalem by the end of the year.

The British secured Jerusalem in December 1917. The British moved into the Jordan valley in 1918 and a campaign by the Entente into northern Palestine led to victory at Megiddo in September.

The British were formally awarded the mandate to govern the region in 1922. The non-Jewish Palestinians revolted in 1920, 1929 and 1936. In 1947, following World War II and the Holocaust, the British Government announced its desire to terminate the Mandate, and the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending partition into an Arab state, a Jewish state and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. The Jewish leadership accepted the proposal, but the Arab Higher Committee rejected it; a civil war began immediately, and the establishment of the State of Israel was declared in 1948. Following what is known as the 1948 Palestinian exodus, the 700,000 Palestinians who fled or were driven from their homes were unable to return following the Lausanne Conference, 1949. In the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Israel captured and incorporated a further 26% of the Mandate territory, Jordan captured the region today known as the West Bank and the Gaza Strip was captured by Egypt. In the course of the Six Day War in June 1967, Israel captured the rest of Mandate Palestine from Jordan and Egypt, and began a policy of Israeli settlements. From 1987 to 1993, the First Palestinian Intifada against Israel took place, which included the Declaration of the State of Palestine in 1988 and ended with the 1993 Oslo Peace Accords. In 2000, the Second or Al-Aqsa Intifada began, and Israel built a security barrier. Following Israel's unilateral disengagement plan of 2004, it withdrew all settlers and most of the military presence from the Gaza strip, but maintained control of the air space and coast. In 2012, the State of Palestine replaced the PLO as UN observer following United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19.[43]

Development of the Palestinian territories    v t e

British Mandate of Palestine, (Jewish settlements in Palestine in orange)

United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine (UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (II), 1947)

The Jordanian occupied West Bank and Egyptian occupied Gaza Strip, after the First Arab-Israeli War, showing 1949 armistice lines

Extant region administered by the Palestinian National Authority (under Oslo 2), shown in the context of 1949 armistice lines

Boundaries

The boundaries of Palestine have varied throughout history.[44][45] The Jordan Rift Valley (comprising Wadi Arabah, the Dead Sea and River Jordan) has at times formed a political and administrative frontier, even within empires that have controlled both territories. At other times, such as during certain periods during the Hasmonean and Crusader states for example, as well as during the biblical period, territories on both sides of the river formed part of the same administrative unit. During the Arab Caliphate period, parts of southern Lebanon and the northern highland areas of Palestine and Jordan were administered as Jund al-Urdun, while the southern parts of the latter two formed part of Jund Dimashq, which during the ninth century was attached to the administrative unit of Jund Filasteen (Arabic: جند فلسطين‎).[46]

The boundaries of the area and the ethnic nature of the people referred to by Herodotus in the 5th century BCE as Palaestina vary according to context. Sometimes, he uses it to refer to the coast north of Mount Carmel. Elsewhere, distinguishing the Syrians in Palestine from the Phoenicians, he refers to their land as extending down all the coast from Phoenicia to Egypt.[47] Pliny, writing in Latin in the 1st century CE, describes a region of Syria that was "formerly called Palaestina" among the areas of the Eastern Mediterranean.[48]

Since the Byzantine Period, the Byzantine borders of Palaestina (I and II, also known as Palaestina Prima, "First Palestine", and Palaestina Secunda, "Second Palestine"), have served as a name for the geographic area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Under Arab rule, Filastin (or Jund Filastin) was used administratively to refer to what was under the Byzantines Palaestina Secunda (comprising Judaea and Samaria), while Palaestina Prima (comprising the Galilee region) was renamed Urdunn ("Jordan" or Jund al-Urdunn).[11]

Nineteenth-century sources refer to Palestine as extending from the sea to the caravan route, presumably the Hejaz-Damascus route east of the Jordan River valley. Others refer to it as extending from the sea to the desert. Prior to the Allied Powers victory in World War I and the Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, which created the British mandate in the Levant, most of the northern area of what is today Jordan formed part of the Ottoman Vilayet of Damascus (Syria), while the southern part of Jordan was part of the Vilayet of Hejaz. What later became part of British Mandate Palestine was in Ottoman times divided between the Vilayet of Beirut (Lebanon) and the Sanjak of Jerusalem.[49]

The Zionist Organization provided its definition concerning the boundaries of Palestine in a statement to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.[50][51] On the basis of a League of Nations mandate, the British administered Palestine after World War I, promising to establish a Jewish homeland.[52] The original Mandate Palestine included what is now Israel, the West Bank (of the Jordan), and Transjordan (the present kingdom of Jordan), although the latter was disattached by an administrative decision of the British in 1922.[53] To the Palestinian people who view Palestine as their homeland, its boundaries are those of Mandate Palestine excluding the Transjordan, as described in the Palestinian National Charter.[54]

Demographics Main article: Demographics of Palestine Early demographics

Estimating the population of Palestine in antiquity relies on two methods – censuses and writings made at the times, and the scientific method based on excavations and statistical methods that consider the number of settlements at the particular age, area of each settlement, density factor for each settlement.

According to Magen Broshi, an Israeli archaeologist "... the population of Palestine in antiquity did not exceed a million persons. It can also be shown, moreover, that this was more or less the size of the population in the peak period—the late Byzantine period, around AD 600"[55] Similarly, a study by Yigal Shiloh of The Hebrew University suggests that the population of Palestine in the Iron Age could have never exceeded a million. He writes: "... the population of the country in the Roman-Byzantine period greatly exceeded that in the Iron Age...If we accept Broshi's population estimates, which appear to be confirmed by the results of recent research, it follows that the estimates for the population during the Iron Age must be set at a lower figure."[56]

Late Ottoman and British Mandate periods Palestine, by S. Munk, Vilna 1913.

In the middle of the 1st century of the Ottoman rule, i.e. 1550 AD, Bernard Lewis in a study of Ottoman registers of the early Ottoman Rule of Palestine reports:[57]

From the mass of detail in the registers, it is possible to extract something like a general picture of the economic life of the country in that period. Out of a total population of about 300,000 souls, between a fifth and a quarter lived in the six towns of Jerusalem, Gaza, Safed, Nablus, Ramle, and Hebron. The remainder consisted mainly of peasants, living in villages of varying size, and engaged in agriculture. Their main food-crops were wheat and barley in that order, supplemented by leguminous pulses, olives, fruit, and vegetables. In and around most of the towns there was a considerable number of vineyards, orchards, and vegetable gardens.

According to Alexander Scholch, the population of Palestine in 1850 was about 350,000 inhabitants, 30% of whom lived in 13 towns; roughly 85% were Muslims, 11% were Christians and 4% Jews[58]

According to Ottoman statistics studied by Justin McCarthy,[59] the population of Palestine in the early 19th century was 350,000, in 1860 it was 411,000 and in 1900 about 600,000 of whom 94% were Arabs. In 1914 Palestine had a population of 657,000 Muslim Arabs, 81,000 Christian Arabs, and 59,000 Jews.[60] McCarthy estimates the non-Jewish population of Palestine at 452,789 in 1882; 737,389 in 1914; 725,507 in 1922; 880,746 in 1931; and 1,339,763 in 1946.[61]

In 1920, the League of Nations' Interim Report on the Civil Administration of Palestine stated that there were 700,000 people living in Palestine:

Of these, 235,000 live in the larger towns, 465,000 in the smaller towns and villages. Four-fifths of the whole population are Moslems. A small proportion of these are Bedouin Arabs; the remainder, although they speak Arabic and are termed Arabs, are largely of mixed race. Some 77,000 of the population are Christians, in large majority belonging to the Orthodox Church, and speaking Arabic. The minority are members of the Latin or of the Uniate Greek Catholic Church, or—a small number—are Protestants. The Jewish element of the population numbers 76,000. Almost all have entered Palestine during the last 40 years. Prior to 1850, there were in the country only a handful of Jews. In the following 30 years, a few hundreds came to Palestine. Most of them were animated by religious motives; they came to pray and to die in the Holy Land, and to be buried in its soil. After the persecutions in Russia forty years ago, the movement of the Jews to Palestine assumed larger proportions. —[62]

By 1948, the population had risen to 1,900,000, of whom 68% were Arabs, and 32% were Jews (UNSCOP report, including bedouin).

Current demographics See also: Demographics of Israel, Demographics of the Palestinian territories, and Demographics of Jordan

According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, as of May 2006, of Israel's 7 million people, 77% were Jews, 18.5% Arabs, and 4.3% "others".[63] Among Jews, 68% were Sabras (Israeli-born), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim — 22% from Europe,the former Soviet republics, Russia, and the Americas, and 10% from Asia and Africa, including the Arab countries.[64]

Of Israel's 7 million citizens, 516,569 Jewish ones live in enclaves referred to as Israeli settlements and outposts in various lands adjacent to the state of Israel occupied by Israel during the Six Day War.[65][66][67]

According to Palestinian evaluations, The West Bank is inhabited by approximately 2.4 million Palestinians and the Gaza Strip by another 1.4 million. According to a study presented at The Sixth Herzliya Conference on The Balance of Israel's National Security,[68] there are 1.4 million Palestinians in the West Bank. This study was criticised by demographer Sergio DellaPergola, who estimated 3.33 million Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip combined at the end of 2005.[69]

According to these Israeli and Palestinian estimates, the total population in Israel and the Palestinian Territories stands between 9.8 and 10.8 million.

Jordan has a population of around 6,000,000 (2007 estimate).[70][71] Long term Palestinian war refugees constitute approximately half of this number.[72]

See also Israeli–Palestinian conflict Names of the Levant Outline of the Palestinian territories Place names of Palestine Geography portal Asia portal Middle East portal Palestine portal Israel portal References ^ a b Carl S. Ehrlich "Philistines" The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible. Ed. Bruce M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan. Oxford University Press, 2001. ^ "The Palestine Exploration Fund". The Palestine Exploration Fund. http://www.pef.org.uk/oldsite/Paldef.htm. Retrieved 4 April 2008. ^ "Palestine:". JewishEncyclopedia.com. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=31&letter=P. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ^ Pappe, Ilan (2006). A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-68315-7. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0521683157. Retrieved 6 February 2011. ^ Kramer, Gudrun (2008). A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11897-3. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0691118973. Retrieved 6 February 2011. ^ Ahlstrom, Gosta (1993). The History of Ancient Palestine. Augsburg Fortress Publishers. ISBN 0-8006-2770-9. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0800627709. Retrieved 6 February 2011. ^ Gideon Biger (2004). The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840–1947. RoutledgeCurzon. passim. ^ de Geus, 2003, p. 7. ^ a b Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Bruce Alan Masters, Gábor Ágoston. Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QjzYdCxumFcC&pg=PA453. Retrieved 17 August 2012. ^ Fahlbusch et al., 2005, p. 185. ^ a b c d Sharon, 1988, p. 4. ^ a b Room, 1997, p. 285. ^ Jacobson, David M. (February 1999). Weinstein, James M.. ed. "Palestine and Israel". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (The American Schools of Oriental Research) (313): 65–74. ISSN 0003097X. JSTOR 1357617. ""The earliest occurrence of this name in a Greek text is in the mid-fifth century b.c., Histories of Herodotus, where it is applied to the area of the Levant between Phoenicia and Egypt."..."The first known occurrence of the Greek word Palaistine is in the Histories of Herodotus, written near the mid-fifth century B.C. Palaistine Syria, or simply Palaistine, is applied to what may be identified as the southern part of Syria, comprising the region between Phoenicia and Egypt. Although some of Herodotus' references to Palestine are compatible with a narrow definition of the coastal strip of the Land of Israel, it is clear that Herodotus does call the "whole land by the name of the coastal strip."..."It is believed that Herodotus visited Palestine in the fifth decade of the fifth century B.C."..."In the earliest Classical literature references to Palestine generally applied to the Land of Israel in the wider sense."" and David Jacobson (May/Jun 2001). "When Palestine Meant Israel". BAR 27:03. http://cojs.org/cojswiki/When_Palestine_Meant_Israel,_David_Jacobson,_BAR_27:03,_May/Jun_2001.. Retrieved 2 March 2012. "As early as the Histories of Herodotus, written in the second half of the fifth century B.C.E., the term Palaistinê is used to describe not just the geographical area where the Philistines lived, but the entire area between Phoenicia and Egypt—in other words, the Land of Israel. Herodotus, who had traveled through the area, would have had firsthand knowledge of the land and its people. Yet he used Palaistinê to refer not to the Land of the Philistines, but to the Land of Israel" ^ Jacobson, David M., Palestine and Israel, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 313 (Feb. 1999), pp. 65–74 ^ The Southern and Eastern Borders of Abar-Nahara Steven S. Tuell Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 284 (Nov. 1991), pp. 51–57 ^ Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast Anson F. Rainey Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 321 (Feb. 2001), pp. 57–63 ^ In his work, Herodotus referred to the practice of male circumcision associated with the Hebrew people: "the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learnt the custom of the Egyptians.... Now these are the only nations who use circumcision." The History of Herodotus ^ Beloe, W., Rev., Herodotus, (tr. from Greek), with notes, Vol.II, London, 1821, p.269 "It should be remembered that Syria is always regarded by Herodotus as synonymous with Assyria. What the Greeks called Palestine the Arabs call Falastin, which is the Philistines of Scripture." ^ Elyahu Green, Geographic names of places in Israel in Herodotos This is confirmed by George Rawlinson in the third book (Thalia) of The Histories where Palaestinian Syrians are part of the fifth tax district spanning the territory from Phoenicia to the borders of Egypt, but excludes the kingdom of Arabs who were exempt from tax for providing the Assyrian army with water on its march to Egypt. These people had a large city called Cadytis, identified as Jerusalem. ^ "Meteorology By Aristotle". Classics.mit.edu. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/meteorology.2.ii.html. Retrieved 17 August 2012. ^ a b Robinson, Edward, Physical geography of the Holy Land, Crocker & Brewster, Boston, 1865, p.15. Robinson, writing in 1865 when travel by Europeans to the Ottoman Empire became common asserts that, "Palestine, or Palestina, now the most common name for the Holy Land, occurs three times in the English version of the Old Testament; and is there put for the Hebrew name פלשת, elsewhere rendered Philistia. As thus used, it refers strictly and only to the country of the Philistines, in the southwest corner of the land. So, too, in the Greek form, Παλαςτίνη), it is used by Josephus. But both Josephus and Philo apply the name to the whole land of the Hebrews ; and Greek and Roman writers employed it in the like extent." ^ Studies in Hellenistic Judaism :Louis H. Feldman ^ The Hellenistic settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa :Getzel M. Cohen ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (Summer 1998). "Palestine: History: 135–337: Syria Palaestina and the Tetrarchy". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. http://www.usd.edu/~clehmann/erp/Palestine/history.htm#135-337. Retrieved 6 July 2008. ^ Sharon, 1998, p. 4. According to Moshe Sharon: "Eager to obliterate the name of the rebellious Judaea", the Roman authorities (General Hadrian) renamed it Palaestina or Syria Palaestina. ^ Jacobson, David M. (February 1999). Weinstein, James M.. ed. "Palestine and Israel". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (The American Schools of Oriental Research) (313): 65–74, p.70 n.2. ISSN 0003097X. JSTOR 1357617. ^ Lewis, 1993, p. 153. ^ a b Kaegi, 1995, p. 41. ^ Marshall Cavendish, 2007, p. 559. ^ Lassner and Troen, 2007, pp. 54–55. ^ Gudrun Krämer (2008) A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel Translated by Gudrun Krämer and Graham Harman Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11897-3 p 16 ^ Judea[dead link] ^ The Legal Foundation and Borders Of Israel Under International Law, Howard Grief. Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=yqk3XE196GsC&pg=PA33. Retrieved 17 August 2012. ^ Greatrex-Lieu(2002), II, 196 ^ Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, Cambridge University Press, 1997 pp. 134–136. ^ Daniel W. Brown,A New Introduction to Islam, Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd.ed. 2011 p.122:'the first great Islamic architectural achievement.' ^ Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634–1099, Cambridge University Press, 1997 p.329. ^ Gil, A History of Palestine, pp.306ff. and p.307 n.71; p.308 n.73 ^ Gil, A History of Palestine, p.324. ^ Gil, A History of Palestine, p.336. ^ Sanford R. Silverburg, 'Diplomatic Recognition of States in statu nascendi:THe Case of Palestine,' in Sanford R. Silverburg (ed.),Palestine and International Law: Essays on Politics and Economics, McFarland, 2009 pp.9-36, p.29 n.32. ^ Ilan Pappe (31 March 1999). The Israel/Palestine Question. Taylor & Francis. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-0-415-16948-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=OjuKhNEmFvoC&pg=PA38. Retrieved 23 August 2012. ^ Q&A: Palestinians' upgraded UN status ^ According to the Jewish Encyclopedia published between 1901 and 1906: "Palestine extends, from 31° to 33° 20′ N. latitude. Its southwest point (at Raphia = Tell Rifaḥ, southwest of Gaza) is about 34° 15′ E. longitude, and its northwest point (mouth of the Liṭani) is at 35° 15′ E. longitude, while the course of the Jordan reaches 35° 35′ to the east. The west-Jordan country has, consequently, a length of about 150 English miles from north to south, and a breadth of about 23 miles at the north and 80 miles at the south. The area of this region, as measured by the surveyors of the English Palestine Exploration Fund, is about 6,040 square miles. The east-Jordan district is now being surveyed by the German Palästina-Verein, and although the work is not yet completed, its area may be estimated at 4,000 square miles. This entire region, as stated above, was not occupied exclusively by the Israelites, for the plain along the coast in the south belonged to the Philistines, and that in the north to the Phoenicians, while in the east-Jordan country, the Israelitic possessions never extended farther than the Arnon (Wadi al-Mujib) in the south, nor did the Israelites ever settle in the most northerly and easterly portions of the plain of Bashan. To-day the number of inhabitants does not exceed 650,000. Palestine, and especially the Israelitic state, covered, therefore, a very small area, approximating that of the state of Vermont." From the Jewish Encyclopedia Boundaries and Extent ^ According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1911), [1] Palestine is: "[A] geographical name of rather loose application. Etymological strictness would require it to denote exclusively the narrow strip of coast-land once occupied by the Philistines, from whose name it is derived. It is, however, conventionally used as a name for the territory which, in the Old Testament, is claimed as the inheritance of the pre-exilic Hebrews; thus it may be said generally to denote the southern third of the province of Syria. Except in the west, where the country is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, the limit of this territory cannot be laid down on the map as a definite line. The modern subdivisions under the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire are in no sense conterminous with those of antiquity, and hence do not afford a boundary by which Palestine can be separated exactly from the rest of Syria in the north, or from the Sinaitic and Arabian deserts in the south and east; nor are the records of ancient boundaries sufficiently full and definite to make possible the complete demarcation of the country. Even the convention above referred to is inexact: it includes the Philistine territory, claimed but never settled by the Hebrews, and excludes the outlying parts of the large area claimed in Num. xxxiv. as the Hebrew possession (from the " River of Egypt " to Hamath). However, the Hebrews themselves have preserved, in the proverbial expression " from Dan to Beersheba " (Judg. xx.i, &c.), an indication of the normal north-and-south limits of their land; and in defining the area of the country under discussion it is this indication which is generally followed. Taking as a guide the natural features most nearly corresponding to these outlying points, we may describe Palestine as the strip of land extending along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea from the mouth of the Litany or Kasimiya River (33° 20' N.) southward to the mouth of the Wadi Ghuzza; the latter joins the sea in 31° 28' N., a short distance south of Gaza, and runs thence in a south-easterly direction so as to include on its northern side the site of Beersheba. Eastward there is no such definite border. The River Jordan, it is true, marks a line of delimitation between Western and Eastern Palestine; but it is practically impossible to say where the latter ends and the Arabian desert begins. Perhaps the line of the pilgrim road from Damascus to Mecca is the most convenient possible boundary. The total length of the region is about 140 m (459.32 ft); its breadth west of the Jordan ranges from about 23 m (75.46 ft) in the north to about 80 m (262.47 ft) in the south." ^ Kamal Suleiman Salibi (1993). The Modern History of Jordan. I.B.Tauris. pp. 17–18. ISBN 1-86064-331-0. ^ Herodotus, The Histories Bk.7.89 ^ cf. Pliny, Natural History V.66 and 68. ^ "Palestinim, Am Behivatsrut," by Kimmerling, Baruch, and Joel S. Migdal - Keter Publishing, ISBN 965-07-0797-2 ^ "Zionist Organization Statement on Palestine, Paris Peace Conference, (February 3, 1919) The Boundaries of Palestine". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/zoparis.html. Retrieved 24 August 2010. ^ "Statement of the Zionist Organization Regarding Palestine Presented to the Paris Peace Conference (with proposed map of Zionist borders) February 3, 1919". Mideastweb.org. http://www.mideastweb.org/zionistborders.htm. Retrieved 24 August 2010. ^ "Middle East Documents Balfour Declaration". Mideastweb.org. http://www.mideastweb.org/mebalfour.htm. Retrieved 16 June 2009. ^ "The British Mandate for Palestine". Mideastweb.org. http://www.mideastweb.org/mandate.htm. Retrieved 16 June 2009. ^ Said and Hitchens, 2001, p. 199. ^ Magen Broshi, The Population of Western Palestine in the Roman-Byzantine Period, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 236, p.7, 1979. ^ Yigal Shiloh, The Population of Iron Age Palestine in the Light of a Sample Analysis of Urban Plans, Areas, and Population Density, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 239, p.33, 1980. ^ Bernard Lewis, Studies in the Ottoman Archives—I, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 469–501, 1954 ^ Scholch, 1985, p. 503. ^ McCarthy, 1990, p.26. ^ McCarthy, 1990. ^ McCarthy, 1990, pp. 37–38. ^ Interim Report on the Civil Administration of Palestine[dead link] ^ Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Israel. "Population, by religion and population group" (PDF). http://www1.cbs.gov.il/shnaton56/st02_01.pdf. Retrieved 8 April 2006. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Israel. "Jews and others, by origin, continent of birth and period of immigration" (PDF). http://www1.cbs.gov.il/shnaton56/st02_24.pdf. Retrieved 8 April 2006. ^ Israel Central Bureau of Statistics: [2] [3] [4] ^ Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies: [5][dead link] [6][dead link] [7][dead link] [8][dead link] ^ Foundation for Middle East Peace: [9][dead link] [10][dead link] ^ Bennett Zimmerman & Roberta Seid (23 January 2006). "Arab Population in the West Bank & Gaza: The Million Person Gap". American-Israel Demographic Research Group. http://web.archive.org/web/20080416015924/www.thefourthwayisrael.com/demographicadvantage.html. Retrieved 27 September 2006. ^ Sergio DellaPergola (Winter 2007, No. 27). "Letter to the Editor". Azure. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927012451/http://www.azure.org.il/magazine/magazine.asp?id=356. Retrieved 11 January 2007. ^ Jordan: Facts & Figures. Retrieved 22 May 2007. ^ CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 22 May 2007. ^ Assessment for Palestinians in Jordan, Minorities at Risk. Retrieved 22 May 2007. Bibliography Works written or compiled since 1945 Abu-Lughod, Ibrahim (1971) (ed.) The Transformation of Palestine. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern Press Avneri, Arieh (1984) The Claim of Dispossession. Tel Aviv: Hidekel Press Bachi, Roberto (1974) The Population of Israel. Jerusalem: Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University Belfer-Cohen, Anna & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2000) "Early Sedentism in the Near East: a bumpy ride to village life". In: Ian Kuijt (Ed.) Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: social organization, identity, and differentiation. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers ISBN 0-306-46122-6 Biger, Gideon (1981) "Where was Palestine? pre-World War I perception", in: AREA (journal of the Institute of British Geographers); Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 153–160 Broshi, Magen (1979) "The Population of Western Palestine in the Roman-Byzantine Period", in: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 236, p. 7, 1979 Byatt, Anthony (1973) "Josephus and Population Numbers in First-century Palestine", in: Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 105, pp. 51–60. Chancey, Mark A. (2005) Greco-Roman Culture and the Galilee of Jesus. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-84647-1 Chase, Kenneth (2003) Firearms: a Global History to 1700. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-82274-2 Doumani, Beshara (1995) Rediscovering Palestine: merchants and peasants in Jabal Nablus 1700–1900. Berkeley: University of California Press ISBN 0-520-20370-4 Ember, Melvin; Peregrine, Peter Neal, eds. (2001). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 8 : South and Southwest Asia (1 ed.). Springer. p. 185. ISBN 0-306-46262-1. Fahlbusch, Erwin; Lochman, Jan Milic; Bromiley, Geoffrey William; Barrett, David B.; Mbiti, John (2005). The encyclopedia of Christianity. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-2416-1, 9780802824165. http://books.google.com/?id=sCY4sAjTGIYC&pg=PA185&dq=prst+medinat+habu+philistine&q= Farsoun, Samih K. & Naseer Aruri (2006) Palestine and the Palestinians; 2nd ed. Boulder CO: Westview Press ISBN 0-8133-4336-4 Finkelstein, I., Mazar, A. & Schmidt, B. (2007) The Quest for the Historical Israel. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature ISBN 978-1-58983-277-0 Gelber, Yoav (1997) Jewish-Transjordanian Relations 1921–48: alliance of bars sinister. London: Routledge ISBN 0-7146-4675-X Gerber, Haim (1998) "Palestine" and Other Territorial Concepts in the 17th Century", in: International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol 30, pp. 563–572. Gilbar, Gar G. (1986) "The Growing Economic Involvement of Palestine with the West, 1865–1914", in: David Kushner (ed.). Palestine in the Late Ottoman Period: political, social and economic transformation. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers ISBN 90-04-07792-8 Gilbar, Gar G. (ed.) (1990) Ottoman Palestine: 1800–1914: studies in economic and social history. Leiden: Brill ISBN 90-04-07785-5 Gilbert, Martin (2005) The Routledge Atlas of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. London: Routledge ISBN 0-415-35900-7 Gottheil, Fred M. (2003) "The Smoking Gun: Arab immigration into Palestine, 1922–1931, Middle East Quarterly, X (1) Grisanti, Michael A.; Howard, David M. (2003). Giving the Sense: understanding and using Old Testament historical texts (Illustrated ed.). Kregel Publications. ISBN 0-8254-2892-0, 9780825428920. http://books.google.com/?id=stMd0QV97IYC&pg=PA160&dq=%22united+monarchy%22+evidence+archaeology&q=%22united%20monarchy%22%20evidence%20archaeology Hansen, Mogens Herman (ed.) (2000) A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures: an investigation. Copenhagen: Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab ISBN 87-7876-177-8 Harris, David Russell (1996) The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia. London: Routledge. ISBN 1-85728-537-9 Hayes, John H. & Mandell, Sara R. (1998) The Jewish People in Classical Antiquity: from Alexander to Bar Kochba. Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 0-664-25727-5 Hughes, Mark (1999) Allenby and British Strategy in the Middle East, 1917-1919. London: Routledge ISBN 0-7146-4920-1 Ingrams, Doreen (1972) Palestine Papers 1917–1922. London: John Murray ISBN 0-8076-0648-0 Kaegi, Walter Emil; Kaegi, Walter Emil (1995). Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests (Reprint, illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48455-3, 9780521484558. http://books.google.com/?id=YSULouFrzx4C&pg=PA41&dq=byzantine+palestine+I+and+II&q= Khalidi, Rashid (1997) Palestinian Identity. The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. New York: Columbia University Press ISBN 0-231-10515-0 Johnston, Sarah Iles (2004) Religions of the Ancient World: a guide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-01517-7 Karpat, Kemal H. (2002) Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History. Leiden: Brill ISBN 90-04-12101-3 Killebrew, Ann E. (2005). Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel 1300–1100 BC. Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 1-58983-097-0 Kimmerling, Baruch and Migdal, Joel S. (1994) Palestinians: The Making of a People. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-65223-1 Köchler, Hans (1981) The Legal Aspects of the Palestine Problem with Special Regard to the Question of Jerusalem. Vienna: Braumüller ISBN 3-7003-0278-9 Kurz, Anat N. (2005) Fatah and the Politics of Violence: the institutionalization of a popular Struggle. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press ISBN 1-84519-032-7, ISBN 978-1-84519-032-3 Lassner, Jacob; Troen, Selwyn Ilan (2007). Jews and Muslims in the Arab world: haunted by pasts real and imagined (Illustrated ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5842-8, 9780742558427. http://books.google.com/?id=NYNCUXGoFWMC&pg=PA55&dq=arabic+palestine+philistine+filastin&q= Lewis, Bernard (1993) Islam in History: ideas, people and events in the Middle East. Chicago: Open Court Publishing ISBN 0-8126-9518-6 Loftus, J. P. (1948), Features of the demography of Palestine, Population Studies, Vol 2 Louis, Wm. Roger (1969) "The United Kingdom and the Beginning of the Mandates System, 1919–1922", in: International Organization, 23 (1), pp. 73–96. McCarthy, Justin (1990) The Population of Palestine. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07110-8. Mandel, Neville J. (1976) The Arabs and Zionism Before World War I. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02466-4 Maniscalco, Fabio (2005) Protection, conservation and valorisation of Palestinian Cultural Patrimony Massa Publisher. ISBN 88-87835-62-4. Marshall Cavendish; Cavendish, Marshall (2007). Peoples of Western Asia (Illustrated ed.). Marshall Cavendish Corporation. ISBN 0-7614-7677-6, 9780761476771. http://books.google.com/?id=qA5LnP1pZacC&pg=PA559&dq=arabic+philistines&q=arabic%20philistines Martindale, John R.; Jones, A.H.M.; Morris, John (1992). The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Volume III: AD 527–641. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20160-8. http://books.google.gr/books?id=fBImqkpzQPsC Metzer, Jacob (1988) The Divided Economy of Mandatory Palestine. Cambridge University Press. Mills, Watson E. (1990) Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press ISBN 0-86554-373-9 Pastor, Jack (1997) Land and Economy in Ancient Palestine. London: Routledge ISBN 0-415-15960-1 Porath, Yehoshua (1974) The Emergence of the Palestinian-Arab National Movement, 1918–1929. London: Frank Cass ISBN 0-7146-2939-1 Redmount, Carol A. (1999) "Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt" in: The Oxford History of the Biblical World, ed: Michael D. Coogan. Oxford: Oxford University Press Rogan, Eugene L. (2002) Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Transjordan, 1850-1921. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-89223-6. Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: origins and meanings of the names for 6,600 countries, cities, territories, natural features, and historic sites (2nd, illustrated ed.). McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3, 9780786422487. http://books.google.com/?id=M1JIPAN-eJ4C&pg=PA285&dq=palastu+Palestine+etymology&q= Rosen, Steven A. (1997) Lithics After the Stone Age: a handbook of stone tools from the Levant. Rowman Altamira ISBN 0-7619-9124-7 Sachar, Howard M. (2006) A History of Israel: from the rise of Zionism to our time, 2nd ed., revised and updated. New York: Alfred A. Knopf ISBN 0-679-76563-8 Said, Edward W. & Hitchens, Christopher (2001) Blaming the Victims: spurious scholarship and the Palestinian Question. London: Verso ISBN 1-85984-340-9 Schiller, Jon (2009). Internet View of the Arabic World. PublishAmerica. ISBN 1-4392-6326-4, 9781439263266. http://books.google.com/?id=HQ-VAkIdiX0C&pg=PA98&dq=%22growing+number%22+%22king+arthur%22+israel&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22growing%20number%22%20%22king%20arthur%22%20israel Schlor, Joachim (1999) Tel Aviv: From Dream to City. Reaktion Books ISBN 1-86189-033-8 Scholch, Alexander (1985) "The Demographic Development of Palestine 1850–1882", in: International Journal of Middle East Studies, XII, 4, November 1985, pp. 485–505 Schmelz, Uziel O. (1990) "Population Characteristics of Jerusalem and Hebron Regions According to Ottoman Census of 1905", in Gar G. Gilbar, ed., Ottoman Palestine: 1800–1914. Leiden: Brill. Shahin, Mariam (2005) Palestine: a Guide. Interlink Books ISBN 1-56656-557-X Sharon, Moshe (1988). The Holy Land in History and Thought: papers submitted to the International Conference on the Relations between the Holy Land and the World Outside It, Johannesburg, 1986. Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-08855-5, 9789004088559. http://books.google.com/?id=Ec4UAAAAIAAJ&pg=PP15&dq=arabic+filastin+philistines&q=arabic%20filastin%20philistines Shiloh, Yigal (1980) "The Population of Iron Age Palestine in the Light of a Sample Analysis of Urban Plans, Areas, and Population Density", in: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 239, p. 33, 1980 Sicker, Martin (1999) Reshaping Palestine: from Muhammad Ali to the British Mandate, 1831–1922. New York: Praeger/Greenwood ISBN 0-275-96639-9 Stearns, Peter N. Citation from The Encyclopedia of World History Sixth Edition, Peter N. Stearns (general editor), © 2001 The Houghton Mifflin Company, at Bartleby.com. UNSCOP Report to the General Assembly[dead link] Westermann Verlag, Georg (2001) Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte; 2e Aufl. Braunschweig: Westermann ISBN 3-07-509520-6 Whitelam, Keith (1997) The Invention of Ancient Israel: the silencing of Palestinian history. London: Routledge ISBN 0-415-10759-8, ISBN 978-0-415-10759-4 Works written before 1918 Le Strange, Guy (1890) Palestine under the Moslems: a description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500; translated from the works of the mediaeval Arab geographers. [London] : Alexander P. Watt for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund; Boston MA: Houghton Mifflin (Reprinted by Khayats, Beirut, 1965, with a new introd. by Walid Khalidy.; AMS Press, New York, 1975) ISBN 0-404-56288-4 Twain, Mark (1867) Innocents Abroad. London: Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-243708-5 External links This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (November 2010) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Maps of the history of the Middle East Wikisource has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia article Palestine. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Palestine www.palestinecenter.org – A website with current and historical information about Palestine Palestine Royal Commission Report (the Peel Report) (London, 1937) Jewishvirtuallibrary.org www.mideastweb.org – A website with a wealth of statistics regarding population in Palestine Coins and Banknotes of Palestine under the British Mandate WorldStatesmen – Maps, flags, chronology, see Israel and Palestinian National Authority hWeb – Israel-Palestine in Maps Palestine Fact Sheet from the Common Language Project 1911 Encyclopedia description of Palestine Liberal Democrat Friends of Palestine Key Development Forecasts for Palestine from International Futures Maps Sykes–Picot Agreement, 1916 1947 UN Partition Plan 1949 Armisitice Lines Israel After 1949 Armistice Agreements v t e Jewish nationalism and the region of Palestine Historic region of Palestine History History of Palestine Timeline of the history of the region of Palestine Time periods in the Palestine region Timeline of the name Palestine Definitions of Palestine Demographics of Palestine The Jewish people Jewish history in the region of Palestine Timeline of Jewish history Chronology of Jewish settlement in the region of Palestine Israeli Jews Israeli culture Law of Return The State of Israel History History of Israel Zionism History of Zionism Timeline of Zionism Timeline of Anti-Zionism Aliyah Herzl Balfour Declaration UN General Assembly Resolution 181 Declaration of Independence Israeli–Palestinian conflict History of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict Arab–Israeli conflict Israeli West Bank barrier Israel's unilateral disengagement plan Israeli-occupied territories Israeli settlements Israeli settlement timeline International law and Israeli settlements Demographics Political status Green Line (Israel) West Bank Judea and Samaria Area Gaza Strip Hof Aza Regional Council Geography of the Gaza Strip East Jerusalem Positions on Jerusalem v t e  Palestinian nationalism and the region of Palestine Palestine (historic region) State of Palestine Palestinian National Authority Name and definition Timeline of the name "Palestine" Definitions of Palestine History Time periods Demographics Israeli–Palestinian conflict Palestinians Culture Refugees Diaspora Right of return Political status History Palestine Liberation Organization Green Line Palestinian territories West Bank History Geography Gaza Strip History Geography East Jerusalem Positions on Jerusalem Jerusalem Governorate Oslo Accords Interim Agreement ("Oslo 2") Politics Cities (PNA–administered) Electoral districts Foreign relations Governorates Law Legislative Council Political parties Fatah Hamas v t e Historic Palestine topics History Timeline periods name Jewish Christian Muslim Definitions of Palestine Demographics Abrahamic
holy places Cave of the Patriarchs Joseph's Tomb Rachel's Tomb Lot's Tomb Judaism Four Holy Cities Western Wall Christianity Church of the Holy Sepulchre Church of the Nativity Basilica of the Annunciation Islam Dome of the Rock Al-Aqsa Mosque Great Mosque of Gaza Regimes Philistines / Canaanites / New Kingdom of Egypt Ancient Israel and Judah Neo-Assyrian Empire / Neo-Babylonian Empire Persian Empire Hellenistic Greece / Hasmonean Roman Empire Byzantine Empire Caliphates Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid / Fatimid Crusaders / Seljuks / Ayyubids The Mamluk Ottoman Empire British Empire Modern state of Israel Egyptian occupation / Jordanian occupation Palestinian territories / Palestinian National Authority / Gaza Strip / State of Palestine Category Outline Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palestine&oldid=531420389" Categories: PalestineDivided regionsFertile CrescentLevantWestern AsiaArab nationalismSouthern LevantHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from August 2010Articles with dead external links from September 2011Use dmy dates from November 2012Wikipedia semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesArticles containing Arabic language textArticles containing Greek language textArticles containing Latin language textArticles containing Hebrew language textArticles with inconsistent citation formatsWikipedia external links cleanup from November 2010Wikipedia spam cleanup from November 2010 Navigation menu Personal tools Create accountLog in Namespaces Article Talk Variants Views Read View source View history Actions Search Navigation Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages Acèh Alemannisch العربية Aragonés Asturianu Azərbaycanca Bân-lâm-gú Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎ Български Bosanski Brezhoneg Català Чӑвашла Česky Cymraeg Dansk Deitsch Deutsch Eesti Ελληνικά Español Esperanto Euskara فارسی Føroyskt Français Frysk Gaeilge Galego Hak-kâ-fa 한국어 Hausa Հայերեն हिन्दी Hrvatski Ido Ilokano বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী Bahasa Indonesia Interlingua Ирон Íslenska Italiano עברית Basa Jawa Kalaallisut ಕನ್ನಡ Къарачай-малкъар ქართული Қазақша Kernowek Latina Latviešu Lëtzebuergesch Lietuvių Magyar Македонски മലയാളം मराठी مصرى Bahasa Melayu Nāhuatl Nederlands 日本語 Norsk (bokmål)‎ Norsk (nynorsk)‎ Occitan Oʻzbekcha ਪੰਜਾਬੀ پنجابی Polski Português Română Romani Runa Simi Русский Scots Shqip Sicilianu Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Soomaaliga کوردی Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Basa Sunda Suomi Svenska Татарча/tatarça ไทย Тоҷикӣ Türkçe ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ Українська اردو Tiếng Việt Walon Winaray Wolof 吴语 ייִדיש Yorùbá 粵語 中文 This page was last modified on 5 January 2013 at 08:58.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Mobile view

Palestinian territories - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Palestinian territories From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Not to be confused with Palestine (region). This article is about the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. For other uses, see Palestinian territories (disambiguation). Palestinian territories Green: Areas of Palestinian National Authority control (in the West Bank) and Hamas government control (Gaza Strip) as of 2007. Largest cities Gaza Hebron Nablus Jenin Demonym Palestinians Settlers Establishment  -  Israeli occupation established 1967  Area  -  Total 6,220 km2   West Bank: 5,860 km2[1]
 (of which Dead Sea: 220 km2)  Gaza Strip: 360 km2[2]
2,402 sq mi   -  Water (%) 3.5 Population  -  2012 estimate 4,293,313[3]  -  2007 census 3,719,189[3][4]  -  Density 654[4]/km2
1,694/sq mi HDI (2010) 0.645[5] (medium / 97th) Currency Jordanian dinara Egyptian poundb Israeli new sheqelc (JOD, EGP, ILS) Time zone   (UTC+2)  -  Summer (DST)   (UTC+3) Calling code +970d Internet TLD .ps فلسطين. a. Used in West Bank since 1950. b. Used in Gaza Strip since 1951. c. Used since 1985. d. +972 also used.

The Palestinian territories or occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) comprise the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] In 1993, following the Oslo Accords, parts of the territories politically came under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority (Areas A and B). In 2007, the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip violently split from the Palestinian Authority, governing the area of Gaza independently since. Israel still exercises full military control and Israeli civil control over 61% of the West Bank (Area C). In April 2011, the Palestinian parties signed an agreement of reconciliation, but its implementation has stalled since.[16] Subsequent reconciliation efforts in 2012 did not succeed either.

The areas of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip were part of the territory west of the Jordan River of Mandatory Palestine under British governance, formed in 1922. From the 1948 Arab–Israeli War until the 1967 Six Day War, the West Bank was occupied and annexed by Jordan (annexation recognized only by UK and Pakistan) and the Gaza Strip occupied by Egypt, though limited authority had been exercised in Gaza by the All-Palestine Government from September 1948 until 1959. The borders of the Palestinian territories are currently considered[who?] to be delineated by the 1949 Armistice Agreements.[17]

Since Israel captured the West Bank and Gaza Strip from Jordan and Egypt in 1967, the international community, including the UN and international legal bodies, has often referred to those areas as the occupied Palestinian territories.[18][19][20]

In 1980, Israel officially annexed East Jerusalem. The annexation was condemned internationally and declared "null and void" by the United Nations Security Council. In 1988, with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) intention to declare a Palestinian State, Jordan renounced all territorial claims to East Jerusalem and the West Bank.[21] Since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988, some 130 UN Member Nations have recognized the State of Palestine, comprising the Palestinian territories. It has not been recognized by Israel and some Western nations, including the United States. Shortly, however, the Palestinian Authority was formed in the outcome of the 1993 Oslo Accords, exercising limited control over parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

The Palestinian National Authority, the United Nations Security Council,[22] the United Nations General Assembly,[23] the European Union,[24] the International Court of Justice,[25] and the International Committee of the Red Cross[26] regard East Jerusalem as part of the West Bank, and consequently a part of the Palestinian territories, while Israel regards it as part of Israel as a result of its annexation in 1980. According to the Israeli Supreme Court, the Fourth Geneva Convention, which prohibits unilateral annexation of occupied territory, does not apply to East Jerusalem, as there was no "legitimate sovereign" there previously.[citation needed] The Palestinian National Authority, which maintains a territorial claim to East Jerusalem, never exercised sovereignty over the area. Israeli sovereignty, however, has not been recognized by any country, since unilateral annexation of territory conquered during war contravenes the Fourth Geneva Convention.[27][28] The Oslo Accords (1995) established access to the sea for Gaza within 20 nautical miles from the shore. The Berlin Commitment of 2002 reduced this to 12 miles. In October 2006 Israel imposed a 6-mile limit, and at the conclusion of the Gaza War restricted access to a 3-nautical-mile limit, beyond which a no-go zone exists. As a result, over 3,000 fishermen are denied access to 85% of the maritime areas agreed to in 1995.[29] The majority of the Dead Sea area is off-limits to Palestinian use, and Palestinians are denied access to its coast line.[30]

The Hamas takeover of Gaza divided the Palestinian territories politically, with Abbas’s Fatah left largely ruling the West Bank and recognized internationally as the official Palestinian Authority.[16] Both the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are often still considered to be occupied by Israel, according to the international community. The Gaza Strip within the borders is governed by Hamas, while much of the West Bank is governed by the Ramallah-based Palestinian National Authority.

Contents 1 Name 2 Boundaries 3 Future Palestinian state 4 East Jerusalem 5 Gaza Strip 6 Political status 7 Legal status 8 Demographics 8.1 Exodus 8.2 Language 9 Administrative divisions 9.1 Areas 9.2 Governorates 10 History 11 See also 12 References 13 External links [edit] Name See also: Timeline of the name Palestine

There are disagreements over what the Palestinian territories should be called.

The United Nations, the European Union, International Committee of the Red Cross and the government of the United Kingdom all refer to the "Occupied Palestinian Territories".[31][32][33]

The International Court of Justice refers to the West Bank and East Jerusalem as "the Occupied Palestinian Territory" and this term has the legal definition of the International Court of Justice following the ruling in July 2004 that Israel is illegally occupying this territory in violation of international law.[34]

Journalists also use the description to indicate lands outside the Green Line.[citation needed] The term is often used interchangeably with the term occupied territories, although this term is also applied to the Golan Heights, which is internationally recognized as part of Syria and not claimed by the Palestinians. The confusion stems from the fact that all these territories were captured by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War and are treated by the UN as territory occupied by Israel.

Other terms used to describe these areas collectively include "the disputed territories", and "Israeli-occupied territories". Further terms include "Palestine", "State of Palestine", "Yesha" (Judea-Samaria-Gaza), "Yosh" (Judea and Samaria), the "Katif Strip" (Gaza Strip), "Palestinian Autonomous Areas"[35] (although this term is also used to specifically refer to Area's A and B[36]), "Palestinian Administered Territories",[35] "administered territories", "territories of undetermined permanent status", "1967 territories", and simply "the territories".

Many Arab and Islamic leaders,[who?] including some Palestinians,[who?] use the designation "Palestine" and "occupied Palestine" to imply a Palestinian political or religious claim to sovereignty over the whole former territory of the British Mandate west of the Jordan River, including all of Israel.[37][dead link] Many[who?] of them view the land of Palestine as an Islamic Waqf (trust) for future Muslim generations. A parallel exists in the aspirations of David Ben-Gurion,[38] Menachem Begin,[39][40] and other Zionists and Jewish religious leaders[who?] to establish Jewish sovereignty over all of Greater Israel in trust for the Jewish people.[41][42] However, this dispute is not related to religion for many Arabs, but simply an issue of rights, as the land was inhabited by Arabs (as well as a minority of Jews) before the Zionist movement began.

Many Israelis[who?] object to the term "Occupied Palestinian Territories" and similar descriptions because they maintain such designations disregard Israeli claims to the West Bank and Gaza, or prejudice negotiations involving possible border changes, arguing that the armistice line agreed to after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War was not intended as a permanent border. Dore Gold wrote, "It would be far more accurate to describe the West Bank and Gaza Strip as "disputed territories" to which both Israelis and Palestinians have claims."[43]

[edit] Boundaries See also: Borders of Israel Map of the Gaza Strip Map of the West Bank

The Palestinian Territories consist of two distinct areas: the West Bank, including East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip. The boundaries are defined by the "1967 borders", which correspond with the Green Line. The Green Line represents the armistice lines under the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which brought an end to the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and expressly declared armistice lines, not international borders. Some Palestinian negotiators have claimed a return to those lines as the boundary for a future Palestinian state, while Hamas does not recognize the State of Israel at all.[44] The Arab League has supported these boundaries as the borders of the future State of Palestine in the 2002 Arab Peace Initiative.

The eastern limit of the West Bank is the border with Jordan. The Israel–Jordan peace treaty defined that border as the international border, and Jordan renounced all claims to territory west of it. The border segment between Jordan and the West Bank was left undefined pending a definitive agreement on the status of the territory.[45]

The southern limit of the Gaza Strip is the border with Egypt. Egypt renounced all claims to land north of the international border, including the Gaza Strip, in the Israel-Egypt peace treaty. The Palestinians were not parties to either agreement.

The Gaza Strip is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea. The natural geographic boundary of the West Bank, as the name implies, is the Jordan River. To the Territories belong the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip and the part of the Dead Sea between the West Bank and the Jordan border-line (see adjacent CIA-map),[1] which are also completely controlled by Israel.

[edit] Future Palestinian state

The Palestinian territories are part of the area predestined by the United Nations to become the territory of the future State of Palestine.[46] Originally a larger area was allotted to the planned Palestinian state in Resolution 181 of 29 November 1947, but in the 1948 Palestine war, the Israeli army conquered major parts of it. While in the Partition Plan about 42% of historic Palestine was destined for the Arabic state, the Palestinian territories constitute only some 23%.[47] The last figure is including all space occupied by Israeli settlements, walls and roads.

In the UN, nearly all countries voted in favour of Resolution 58/292 of 17 May 2004; namely, that the boundaries of a future Palestinian state should be based on the pre-1967 borders, which correspond with the Green Line. The Resolution affirmed, in connection with the Palestinian right to self-determination and to sovereignty, that the independent State of Palestine should be based on the pre-1967 borders.[46] In Resolution 43/177 of 15 December 1988, the declaration of independence of the State of Palestine was acknowledged by the UN General Assembly,[48] but it was not admitted as a member state. In the same resolution, their sovereignty over the Occupied Palestinian Territories was recognized, without explicitly limiting the territories of Palestine to those areas.

On 29 November 2012, the UN General Assembly passed United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19 changing Palestine's "entity" status to "non-member state" by a vote of 138 to 9, with 41 abstentions. This implicitly recognized it.[49][50]

[edit] East Jerusalem

In 1980, Israel annexed East Jerusalem. The annexation lacks international recognition. Seven UNSC resolutions, including United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared it "null and void" and required that it be rescinded, stating that it was a violation of international law (the 4th Geneva Convention). The United Nations never explicitly recognized Jerusalem as part of either Israel or Palestine, as Resolution 181 (1947) was never revoked. In Resolution 181, Jerusalem was intended to become a corpus separatum under international regime. Nevertheless, most countries, including the US, implicitly recognize West Jerusalem as part of Israel, but do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital.[51][52]

Palestinians regard East Jerusalem as the capital of the future Palestinian state. East Jerusalem is generally recognized as part of the Palestinian Territories. In UN resolutions concerning Israel, East Jerusalem is routinely referred to as part of the West Bank or as part of the Palestinian Territories.[46]

[edit] Gaza Strip

In 2005, Israel pulled all its remaining forces out of the Gaza Strip and dismantled its settlements. Nevertheless, according to the international community, the Gaza Strip is still considered to be occupied by Israel.[citation needed] Israel has denied that it occupies the Gaza Strip, but the borders of the Gaza Strip, including coast and airspace, are completely controlled by Israel.[53][54] The UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967 stated in 2007:[55]

"Israel remains an occupying Power in respect of Gaza. Arguments that Israel ceased its occupation of Gaza in 2005 following the evacuation of its settlements and the withdrawal of its troops take no account of the fact that Israel retains effective control over Gaza by means of its control over Gaza’s external borders, airspace, territorial waters, population registry, tax revenues and governmental functions. The effectiveness of this control is emphasized by regular military incursions and rocket attacks."

[edit] Political status Main article: Political status of the Palestinian territories See also: Palestinian National Authority and Governance of the Gaza Strip

The political status of the territories has been the subject of negotiations between Israel and the PLO and of numerous statements and resolutions by the United Nations. (See List of United Nations resolutions concerning Israel.) Since 1994, the autonomous Palestinian National Authority has exercised various degrees of control in large parts of the territories, as a result of the Declaration of Principles contained in the Oslo Accords. The United States government considers the West Bank and Gaza as a single entity for political, economic, legal and other purposes.[56] The State Department and other US government agencies, such as USAID West Bank and Gaza,[57] have been tasked with projects in the areas of democracy, governance, resources, and infrastructure. Part of the USAID mission is to provide flexible and discrete support for implementation of the Quartet Road Map.[58] The Road Map is an internationally backed plan that calls for the progressive development of a viable Palestinian State in the West Bank and Gaza. Participating states provide assistance through direct contributions or through the Palestinian State account established by the World Bank.[59]

Gaza City in 2007.

After Hamas won a majority of seats in elections for the Palestinian Parliament, the United States and Israel instituted an economic blockade of the Gaza Strip.[60][61] When that failed to topple the new government, a covert operation was launched to eliminate Hamas by force.[62][63][64] The covert initiative was exposed when confidential State Department documents were accidentally leaked by the US envoy. The talking points delivered to the Fatah leadership said:

Hamas should be given a clear choice, with a clear deadline: they either accept a new government that meets the Quartet principles, or they reject it. The consequences of Hamas’ decision should also be clear: If Hamas does not agree within the prescribed time, you should make clear your intention to declare a state of emergency and form an emergency government explicitly committed to that platform.[65]

Since the Battle of Gaza (2007), the administration of the territories has been contested by two rival factions of the Palestinian National Authority, with Hamas controlling the Gaza Strip and Fatah continuing to administer the West Bank. Both groups claim legitimacy over leadership of the Palestinian territories. Most countries with an interest in the issues, including most of the Arab countries, recognize the administration of Mahmoud Abbas as the legitimate government over both Palestinian Territories.[who?]

During Operation Cast Lead the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1860 (2009), which said that the Gaza Strip constitutes an integral part of the territory occupied in 1967 that will be a part of the Palestinian state.[66]

On 15 December 2011, Iceland recognized Palestine as an independent and sovereign state within the pre-1967 Six Day War borders; Össur Skarphéðinsson, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iceland, and Dr. Riad Malki, the Foreign Minister of Palestine, formally confirmed the establishment of full diplomatic relations between Iceland and Palestine.[67]

[edit] Legal status Part of a series on Palestinians Demographics Definitions History Name People Diaspora Refugee camps Arab citizens of Israel Politics Previous
Arab Higher Committee All-Palestine Government PLO PFLP Depopulated villages Current Fatah Hamas Islamic Jihad National Authority (PNA) (political parties) Gaza Strip governance (Hamas) Districts Governorates Cities Arab localities in Israel National Council (PNC) Legislative Council (PLC) Flag Law Territories
(West Bank Gaza Strip E. Jerusalem) Religion / Religious sites Christianity Islam Judaism Al-Aqsa Mosque Basilica of the Annunciation Cave of the Patriarchs Church of the Holy Sepulchre Church of the Nativity Dome of the Rock Great Mosque of Gaza Joseph's Tomb Lot's Tomb Nabi Samwil Rachel's Tomb Culture Art Cinema Costume and embroidery Cuisine Dabke (dance) Handicrafts Language Literature Music List of Palestinians v t e See also: International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict, Political status of the Palestinian territories, and Status of territories captured by Israel

The International Court of Justice ruling of 9 July 2004 determined that Israel is illegally occupying this territory in violation of international law.[68] These violations include articles of the 4th Geneva Convention; the 4th Hague Convention 1907; UN Security Council Resolutions 446, 452 & 465; and articles of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.[69]

In line with this legal finding the international community regards the West Bank and East Jerusalem as territories occupied by Israel, and, although it has withdrawn its military forces, Israel continues to be designated the occupying power in the Gaza Strip by the United Nations, the United States, the United Kingdom and various human rights organizations.[70][71] However, the co-founder of Hamas, Mahmoud Zahar, has stated that Gaza is no longer occupied since the Israeli withdrawal.[72] The final status of the Palestinian Territories as an independent state is supported by the countries that form the Quartet's "Road map for peace". The government of Israel has also accepted the road map but with 14 reservations.[73]

Customary international law, including the International Court of Justice's interpretation of the Fourth Geneva Convention in their July 2004 ruling, has been widely interpreted as prohibiting Israel from building settlements, due to its clauses prohibiting the transfer of a civilian population into an occupied territory.[74] This was reaffirmed December 5, 2001, at the Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention. The participating High Contracting Parties called upon Israel "to fully and effectively respect the Fourth Geneva Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and to refrain from perpetrating any violation of the Convention. They reaffirm the illegality of the settlements in the said territories and of the extension thereof."[70] Article 47 of the Fourth Geneva Convention prohibits any change of status in occupied territory concluded through negotiations between the occupying power and local authorities under occupation. This finding also suggests that Israel may be in violation of the Rome Statute (one of the primary legal instruments of the International Criminal Court), Article 8, section (2)(b)(viii): “The transfer, directly or indirectly, by the Occupying Power of parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies, or the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of the occupied territory within or outside this territory” see:.[75] Given that United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19 upgraded Palestine to non-member observer state status in November 2012, representatives of Palestine may now be able to take members of the Israeli government to the ICC under violations of the Rome Statute.

Critics point out that implementation of the Oslo Accords has not improved conditions for the population under occupation.[76] Israel contends that the settlements are not illegal as the West Bank is considered a "disputed territory" under international law. United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 recognized Israel's rights to "safe and secure borders", which has been interpreted[by whom?] as meaning that Israel had a right to West Bank territory for secure borders. The San Remo Conference, binding under international law, further envisioned the West Bank as being part of a sovereign Jewish state, and arguably encourages, rather than prohibits Jewish settlement in the area. Furthermore, many of the settlements were established on the sites of former Jewish communities that had existed there prior to 1947 on land that was legitimately bought, and ethnically cleansed by Arab forces. Israel views the territory as being the subject of legitimate diplomatic dispute and negotiation under international law.[77][78] East Jerusalem, captured in 1967, was unilaterally annexed by Israel. The UN Security Council Resolution 478 condemned the annexation as "a violation of international law". This annexation has not been recognized by other nations, although the United States Congress declared its intention to recognize the annexation (a proposal that has been condemned by other states and organizations). Because of the question of Jerusalem's status, no states base their diplomatic missions there and treat Tel Aviv as the capital,[79] though two states have embassies in the Jerusalem suburb of Mevaseret Zion. Israel asserts that these territories are not currently claimed by any other state, and that Israel has the right to control them.

Israel's position has not been accepted by most countries and international bodies, and the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip are referred to as occupied territories (with Israel as the occupying power) by most international legal and political bodies,[80] the rest of the Arab bloc, the UK,[81] including the EU, the United States,([6], [7][dead link]), both the General Assembly and Security Council of the United Nations,[80] the International Court of Justice, the Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention,[82] and the Israeli Supreme Court (see Israeli West Bank barrier).

Former U.S. President George W. Bush stated, during his presidency, that he did not expect Israel to return entirely to pre-1967 borders, due to "new realities on the ground."[83] However, the longstanding policy of the United States called upon Israel to offer territorial compensation.[84]

Both US President Bill Clinton and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, who played notable roles in attempts at mediation, noted the need for some territorial and diplomatic compromise on this issue, based on the validity of some of the claims of both sides.[85][86] One compromise offered by Clinton would have allowed Israel to keep some settlements in the West Bank, especially those in large blocks near the pre-1967 borders of Israel. In return, Palestinians would have received concessions of land in other parts of the country.[87] The United Nations did not declare any change in the status of the territories as of the creation of the Palestinian National Authority between 1993 and 2000, although a 1999 U.N. document[80] implied that the chance for a change in that status was slim at that period.

During the period between the 1993 Oslo Accords and the Second Intifada beginning in 2000, Israeli officials claimed that the term "occupation" did not accurately reflect the state of affairs in the territories. During this time, the Palestinian population in large parts of the territories had a large degree of autonomy and only limited exposure to the IDF except when seeking to move between different areas. Following the events of the Second Intifada, and in particular, Operation Defensive Shield, most territories, including Palestinian cities (Area A), are back under effective Israeli military control, so the discussion along those lines is largely moot.

In the summer of 2005, Israel implemented its unilateral disengagement plan; about 8500 Israeli citizens living in the Gaza Strip were forcibly removed from the territory; some received alternative homes and a sum of money. The Israel Defense Forces vacated Gaza in 2005, but invaded it again in 2006 in response to rocket attacks and the abduction of Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit by Hamas.

In January 2010, King Abdullah of Jordan, after a meeting with the Israeli president Shimon Peres at the World Economic Forum in Davos, declared that his country does not want to rule the West Bank and that "the two-state solution" to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was the only viable option. If rule over the territory was to be transferred to the kingdom, it would only "replace Israeli military rule with Jordanian military rule... and the Palestinians want their own state."[88]

In December 2010, Brazil recognized Palestine as a state with its 1967 borders. This move was later followed by Argentina, Peru, Uruguay, Bolivia and Ecuador. This action was later criticized by Israel and the United States, who labelled it "counterproductive".[89]

[edit] Demographics Main article: Palestinian people See also: Demographics of Palestine and Demographics of the Palestinian territories

The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) estimated Palestinians at mid year 2009 as 10.7 million persons as follows: 3.9 million in the Palestinian Territory (36.6%), 1.2 million (11.5%) in Israel; 5.0 million in Arab countries (46.2%), 0.6 million in foreign countries (5.7%).[90]

According to The Guardian (2008) the Palestinian territories have one of the fastest growing populations in the world, with numbers surging 30% in the past decade (2008). There was 3.76 million Palestinians in the West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem, up from 2.89 million 10 years earlier.[91]

According to the U.S. Census population growth mid 1990-2008 in Gaza and West Bank was 106% from 1.9 million (1990) to 3.9 million persons.[92]

According to the UN (2010), the Palestinian population is 4.4 million.[93] According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) population density in 2009 was 654 capita/km2, of which 433 capita/km2 in the West Bank including Jerusalem and 4,073 capita/km2 in Gaza Strip.[94] In mid 2009, the share of population less than 15 years was 41.9% and above 65 years 3%.[94]

Population (mid year)[95][96][97] Year West Bank Gaza Total 1970 0.69 0.34 1.03 1980 0.90 0.46 1.36 1990 1.25 0.65 1.90 2000 1.98 1.13 3.11 2004 2.20 1.30 3.50 2008 2.41 1.5 3.91 2010 2.52 1.60 4.12 Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2006 2.5 1.5 4.0 2009 2.48 1.45 3.94 Source: Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics Region Population West Bank 2,568,555[98] East Jerusalem 192,800[99] Gaza Strip 1,657,155[100] Name Population
(2007)[101] Area (km2) Density[102] West Bank 2,369,700 5,671 417.86 Gaza Strip 1,416,539 360 3934.83 Total 3,786,239 6,031 627.80 [edit] Exodus Main articles: 1948 Palestinian exodus, 1949–1956 Palestinian exodus, and 1967 Palestinian exodus [edit] Language

Arabic is the official language within the Palestinian Authority.[103] Palestinian Arabic is the vernacular. Hebrew and English are widely spoken. 16.1% of the population speaks Hebrew as their native language and Hebrew is also a second or third language to many other Palestinians.[104]

[edit] Administrative divisions

The Constitution of the League of Arab States says the existence and independence of Palestine cannot be questioned de jure even though the outward signs of this independence have remained veiled as a result of force majeure.[105] The League supervised the Egyptian trusteeship of the Palestinian government in Gaza after the termination of the British Mandate and secured assurances from Jordan that the 1950 Act of Union was "without prejudice to the final settlement".[106][107]

By the 1988 declaration, the PNC empowered its central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and called upon its executive committee to perform the duties of the government-in-exile until its establishment.[108]

Under the terms of the Oslo Accords signed between Israel and the PLO, the latter assumed control over the Jericho area of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip on 17 May 1994. On September 28, 1995, following the signing of the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israeli military forces withdrew from the West Bank towns of Nablus, Ramallah, Jericho, Jenin, Tulkarem, Qalqilya and Bethlehem. In December 1995, the PLO also assumed responsibility for civil administration in 17 areas in Hebron.[109] While the PLO assumed these responsibilities as a result of Oslo, a new temporary interim administrative body was set up as a result of the Accords to carry out these functions on the ground: the Palestinian National Authority (PNA).

An analysis outlining the relationship between the PLO, the PNA (PA), Palestine and Israel in light of the interim arrangements set out in the Oslo Accords begins by stating that, "Palestine may best be described as a transitional association between the PA and the PLO." It goes on to explain that this transitional association accords the PA responsibility for local government and the PLO responsibility for representation of the Palestinian people in the international arena, while prohibiting it from concluding international agreements that affect the status of the occupied territories. This situation is said to be accepted by the Palestinian population insofar as it is viewed as a temporary arrangement.[110]

Since the Battle of Gaza (2007), the two separate territories, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, are divided into a Hamas leadership in the Gaza Strip and a Fatah civil leadership in the autonomous areas of the West Bank. Each sees itself as the administrator of all Palestinian Territories and does not acknowledge the other one as the official government of the territories. The Palestinian Territories have therefore de facto split into two entities.

[edit] Areas Main article: Administrative divisions of the Oslo Accords Israeli signpost warning Israeli citizens that entry into Area 'A' is forbidden, life-endangering, and constitutes a criminal offense

The Oslo II Accord created three temporary distinct administrative divisions in the Palestinian territories, the Areas A, B and C, until a final status accord would be established. The areas are not contiguous, but rather fragmented depending on the different population areas as well as Israeli military requirements.

Area A (full civil and security control by the Palestinian Authority): circa 3% of the West Bank, exclusive East-Jerusalem (first phase, 1995).[111][112] In 2011: 18%.[113][114] This area includes all Palestinian cities and their surrounding areas, with no Israeli settlements. Entry into this area is forbidden to all Israeli citizens. The Israel Defense Forces maintain no presence, but sometimes conducts raids to arrest suspected militants. Area B (Palestinian civil control and joint Israeli-Palestinian security control): circa 25% (first phase, 1995).[111][112] In 2011: 21%.[113][114] Includes areas of many Palestinian towns and villages and areas, with no Israeli settlements. Area C (full Israeli civil and security control, except over Palestinian civilians): circa 72% (first phase, 1995).[111][112] In 2011: 61%.[113][114] These areas include all Israeli settlements (cities, towns, and villages), nearby land, most roadways that connected the settlements (and which Israelis are now restricted to) as well as strategic areas described as "security zones."[113] There were 1,000 Israeli settlers living in Area C in 1972. By 1993, their population had increased to 110,000. As of 2012 they number more than 300,000 – as against 150,000 Palestinians, the majority of whom are Bedouin and fellahin.[115] [edit] Governorates Main article: Governorates of the Palestinian National Authority Governorates of the Palestinian National Authority.

After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian territories were divided 16 governorates under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority. Since 2007 there are two governments claiming to be the legitimate government of the Palestinian National Authority, one based in the West Bank and one based in the Gaza Strip.

[edit] History See also: History of Palestine, History of the Gaza Strip, and History of the Palestinian people Part of a series on the History of the Palestinian territories Years Timeline Sub-topics West Bank Gaza Strip Gaza city Palestinian people Judea (southern West Bank) Tribe of Judah Kingdom of Judah Babylonian Judah Persian Judah Modern southern West Bank Ancient Gaza Strip Philistines Governance (since 1948) "All-Palestine Government"
in the Gaza Strip (1948–1959) Occupation of
the Gaza Strip by Egypt (1959–1967) Occupation of
the West Bank by Jordan (1948–1967) Occupation of the
Palestinian territories by Israel (1967–present) Palestinian National Authority (1993–present) Hamas government in the Gaza Strip (2007–present) Palestine portal v t e Boundaries defined in the UN partition plan of 1947:   Area assigned for a Jewish state;     Area assigned for an Arab state;     Corpus separatum of Jerusalem (neither Jewish nor Arab). Armistice Demarcation Lines of 1949:     Arab territory from 1949 to 1967;       Israel in the 1949 armistice lines.

In 1922, after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire that ruled Greater Syria for four centuries (1517–1917), the British Mandate for Palestine was established. Large-scale Jewish immigration from abroad, mainly from Eastern Europe took place during the British Mandate, though Jewish immigration started during the Ottoman period.[116][117] The future of Palestine was hotly disputed between Arabs and Jews. In 1947, the total Jewish ownership of land in Palestine was 1,850,000 dunams or 1,850 square kilometers, which is 7.04% of the total land of Palestine.[118] Public property or "crown lands", the bulk of which was in the Negev, belonging to the government of Palestine may have made up as much as 70% of the total land; with the Arabs, Christians and others owning the rest.[119]

The 1947 United Nations Partition Plan proposed a division of Mandate Palestine between an Arab and a Jewish state, with Jerusalem and the surrounding area to be a corpus separatum under a special international regime. The regions allotted to the proposed Arab state included what became the Gaza Strip, and almost all of what became the West Bank, as well as other areas.

The Partition Plan was passed by the UN General Assembly on November 1947. The Partition Plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership, but rejected by the Arab leaders. The Arab League threatened to take military measures to prevent the partition of Palestine and to ensure the national rights of the Palestinian Arab population. One day before the expiration of the British Mandate for Palestine, on 14 May 1948, Israel declared its independence within the borders of the Jewish State set out in the Partition Plan. US President Harry Truman recognized the State of Israel de facto the following day. The Arab countries declared war on the newly formed State of Israel heralding the start of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

After the war, which Palestinians call the Nakba, the 1949 Armistice Agreements established the separation lines between the combatants, leaving Israel in control of some of the areas designated for the Arab state under the Partition Plan, Transjordan in control of the West Bank and East Jerusalem, Egypt in control of the Gaza Strip and Syria in control of the Himmah Area.

In 1950, Jordan annexed the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Only the United Kingdom formally recognized the annexation of the West Bank, de facto in the case of East Jerusalem.[120] In the Gaza Strip the Arab League formed the All-Palestine Government, which operated under Egypt occupation.

Article 24 of the Palestinian National Covenant of 1964, which established the Palestine Liberation Organization,[121] stated: "This Organization does not exercise any territorial sovereignty over the West Bank in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, on the Gaza Strip or in the Himmah Area" (i.e. the areas of the former Mandate Palestine controlled by Jordan, Egypt and Syria, respectively).

Israel captured both territories in the 1967 Six-Day War, as well as other territory belonging to Egypt and Syria. Since then, these territories have been designated Israeli-occupied territories. Immediately after the war, on June 19, 1967, the Israeli government offered to return the Golan Heights to Syria, the Sinai to Egypt and most of the West Bank to Jordan in exchange for peace. At the Khartoum Summit in September, the Arab parties responded to this overture by declaring "no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel and no negotiations with Israel."[122]

UN Security Council Resolution 242 introduced the "Land for Peace" formula for normalizing relations between Israel and its neighbors. This formula was used when Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in 1979 in exchange for a peace treaty. While that treaty mentioned a "linkage" between Israeli-Egyptian peace and Palestinian autonomy, the formerly Egyptian-occupied territory in Gaza was excluded from the agreement, and remained under Israeli control.

The Oslo Accords of the early 1990s between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel led to the creation of the Palestinian Authority. This was an interim organization created to administer a limited form of Palestinian self-governance in the territories for a period of five years during which final-status negotiations would take place. The Palestinian Authority carried civil responsibility in some rural areas, as well as security responsibility in the major cities of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Although the five-year interim period expired in 1999, the final status agreement has yet to be concluded despite attempts such as the 2000 Camp David Summit, the Taba summit, and the unofficial Geneva Accords.

Development of the Palestinian territories    v t e

British Mandate of Palestine, (Jewish settlements in Palestine in orange)

United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine (UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (II), 1947)

The Jordanian occupied West Bank and Egyptian occupied Gaza Strip, after the First Arab-Israeli War, showing 1949 armistice lines

Extant region administered by the Palestinian National Authority (under Oslo 2), shown in the context of 1949 armistice lines

[edit] See also Palestine portal Middle East portal Israel portal Outline of the Palestinian territories Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories Definitions of Palestine Economy of the Palestinian territories Jordanian occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt Palestinian Environmental NGOs Network Palestinian flag Racism in the Palestinian territories Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Monitoring Program Health care in the Palestinian territories [edit] References ^ a b "CIA - The World Factbook". cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/we.html. Retrieved 2012-11-28. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook". cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gz.html. Retrieved 2012-11-28. ^ a b http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Portals/_Rainbow/Documents/gover_e.htm ^ a b http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Portals/_pcbs/PressRelease/population_dE.pdf ^ http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/Lets-Talk-HD-HDI_2010.pdf ^ "Palestinian Territories". State.gov. 2008-04-22. http://www.state.gov/p/nea/ci/pt/. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ "FRONTLINE/WORLD . Palestinian Territories - Inside Hamas . Additional Resources . PBS". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/palestine503/additional.html. Retrieved 2012-12-29. ^ [1][dead link] ^ "Country Profile: The Occupied Palestinian Territories". Fco.gov.uk. 2012-03-26. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/middle-east-north-africa/palestine-national-authority?profile=geography. Retrieved 2012-12-29. ^ http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ochaopt_atlas_opt_general_december2011.pdf ^ "Palestinian Territories". Ukti.gov.uk. http://www.ukti.gov.uk/export/countries/asiapacific/neareast/palestinianterritories.html. Retrieved 2012-12-29. ^ "Palestinian territories". Giz.de. http://www.giz.de/en/worldwide/379.html. Retrieved 2012-12-29. ^ "Palestinian Territories". Opendoors.org.za. http://www.opendoors.org.za/eng/persecuted_christians/wwl_2012/palestinian_territory/. Retrieved 2012-12-29. ^ "KfW Entwicklungsbank | Palestinian Territories". Kfw-entwicklungsbank.de. http://www.kfw-entwicklungsbank.de/ebank/EN_Home/Countries_and_Programmes/North_Africa_and_Middle_East/Palestine_Territories/index.jsp. Retrieved 2012-12-29. ^ Dan Arbell. "The Palestinian Territories | Brookings Institution". Brookings.edu. http://www.brookings.edu/research/topics/palestinian-territories. Retrieved 2012-12-29. ^ a b "''Hamas leader’s Tunisia visit angers Palestinian officials''". English.alarabiya.net. 2012-01-07. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/01/07/186930.html. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ Egypt Israel Armistice Agreement UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949 ^ Resolution 446 (1979); 22 March 1979 (doc.nr. S/RES/446 (1979)) ^ Le More, Anne (2008). International assistance to the Palestinians after Oslo: political guilt, wasted money. Routledge studies on the Arab-Israeli conflict. 1. London and New York: Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-415-45385-1. ^ "December Overview" (PDF). UNOCHA. December 2009. http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_opt_the_humanitarian_monitor_2010_01_18_english.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-03. ^ Human Rights Watch, 1 February 2010; Stateless Again – II. International and Jordanian Law ^ Resolution 446, Resolution 465, Resolution 484, among others ^ "Applicability of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, and the other occupied Arab territories". United Nations. 17 December 2003. http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/97360ee7a29e68a085256df900723485/d6f5d7049734efff85256e1200677754. Retrieved 27 September 2006. ^ "EU-Settlements Watch". 1 February – 31 July 2002. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/2004/12/22/%7B3FA161D9-6DA6-408F-85CE-20D0EC68DDFF%7D.pdf. ^ "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory". International Court of Justice. 9 July 2004. ^ "Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention: statement by the International Committee of the Red Cross". International Committee of the Red Cross. 5 December 2001. http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/5fldpj.htm. Retrieved 27 September 2006. ^ The Right of Conquest By Sharon Korman ^ Dugard, John (1987). Recognition and the United Nations. Cambridge: Grotius Publications Limited. pp. 111–115. ISBN 0-521-46322-X. ^ 'Gaza in 2020: A liveable place?,'[dead link] UNRWA, 27 August 2012 ^ 'Humanitarian Fact Sheet on the Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea Area,' OCHA, February 2012. ^ "Country Profile: The Occupied Palestinian Territories". Fco.gov.uk. 2012-03-26. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/middle-east-north-africa/palestine-national-authority. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ "House of Commons International Development Committee - FINAL REPORT Vol I 26 January 2004" (PDF). http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmintdev/230/230.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ "The occupied Palestinian territories: Dignity Denied". International Committee of the Red Cross. 2007-12-13. http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/report/palestine-report-131207.htm. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory" (PDF). http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/131/1671.pdf. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ a b "Definition of Palestinian Autonomous Areas". Collins English Dictionary. http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/palestinian-autonomous-areas. Retrieved 2012-11-28. ^ "In Depth | World | Israel and the Palestinians". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/world/2001/israel_and_palestinians/key_maps/pal_west.stm. Retrieved 2013-01-03. ^ See, for example,The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement 18 August 1988 ^ The British labour movement and Zionism, 1917-1948. Routledge. 1983. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-7146-3162-2. "The Jewish people have always regarded, and will continue to regard Palestine as a whole, as a single country which is theirs in a national sense and will become theirs once again. No Jew will accept partition as a just and rightful solution." ^ Chomsky, Noam (1999). Fateful triangle: the United States, Israel, and the Palestinians. South End Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-89608-601-2. ^ Shlaim, Avi (2008). The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. Paw Prints. p. 670. ISBN 978-1-4352-9513-1. ^ See, for example, Open a Bible ^ The Likud—Platform states "The Government of Israel flatly rejects the establishment of a Palestinian Arab state west of the Jordan River. The Palestinians can run their lives freely in the framework of self-rule, but not as an independent and sovereign state." ^ [From 'Occupied Territories' to 'Disputed Territories,' Dore Gold, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=380&PID=1864&IID=1115] ^ [2][dead link] ^ [3][dead link] ^ a b c Resolution 58/292. Status of the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem; 17 May 2004 (doc.nr. A/RES/58/292) ^ Based on figures of the CIA World Factbook. The Factbook estimates the land area of Israel (excluding the Golan Heights) 20,330 square kilometer, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem, but excluding Mt. Scopus) 5,640 and the Gaza Strip 360. ^ UNGA, ; Resolution 43/177. Question of Palestine (doc.nr. A/RES/43/177) ^ "Palestinians win implicit U.N. recognition of sovereign state". Reuters. 29 November 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/29/us-palestinians-statehood-idUSBRE8AR0EG20121129. Retrieved 29 November 2012. ^ "UN makes Palestine nonmember state". 3 News NZ. November 30, 2012. http://www.3news.co.nz/LIVE-STREAM-Palestine-asks-United-Nations-for-a-birth-certificate-ahead-of-vote/tabid/417/articleID/278702/Default.aspx. ^ "''Palestinians accuse Romney of "racist" remark''". Aljazeera.com. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/07/2012730225848752676.html. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ Associated, The (2012-07-30). "''Romney calling Jerusalem Israel's capital is 'unacceptable,' says Erekat''". Haaretz.com. http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/romney-calling-jerusalem-israel-s-capital-is-unacceptable-says-erekat-1.454662. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ "''Israel Gaza blockade must be completely lifted''". Amnesty.org. http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/israel-gaza-blockade-must-be-completely-lifted-2010-06-17. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ "MIDEAST: Border Areas Bombed Again". Ipsnews.net. 2009-03-12. http://www.ipsnews.net/2009/03/mideast-border-areas-bombed-again/. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ UN Special Rapporteur, Situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967 (p.2; see also pp. 8-12). 17 August 2007 (doc.nr. A/62/275) ^ "Department of the Treasury, Customs Service, T.D. 97–16, Country of Origin Marking of Products From the West Bank and Gaza" (PDF). http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1997-03-14/pdf/97-6434.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ "USAID West Bank/Gaza". Usaid.gov. http://www.usaid.gov/wbg/home.html. Retrieved 2010-06-30.[dead link] ^ "West Bank and Gaza — Strategic Objective: 294-001" (PDF). http://www.usaid.gov/policy/budget/cbj2005/ane/pdf/294-001.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-30.[dead link] ^ Embassy of France. "International Donors’ Conferences for the Palestinian State". Ambafrance-us.org. http://ambafrance-us.org/spip.php?article1037. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ British Jewish group sparks outrage with Gaza blockade criticism[dead link] ^ "Gaza’s Future, Henry Siegman, London Review of Books". Lrb.co.uk. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v30/n03/sieg01_.html. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ Bay of Pigs in Gaza, Tom Segev, Haaretz[dead link] ^ Suzanne Goldenberg in Washington (2008-03-04). "US plotted to overthrow Hamas after election victory, Suzanne Goldenberg, The". London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/04/usa.israelandthepalestinians. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ "Rabin Made Mistake Arming Arafat - Olmert Makes Same Mistake Arming Abbas". Zoa.org. http://www.zoa.org/sitedocuments/pressrelease_view.asp?pressreleaseID=104. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ "The Gaza Bombshell, David Rose, Vanity Fair, April 2008, page 3". Vanityfair.com. 2009-10-20. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2008/04/gaza200804?currentPage=3. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ "See the text of UN Security Council Resolution 1860 (2009)". Un.org. 2009-01-08. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/sc9567.doc.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ Iceland Recognizes Palestine, Iceland's Ministry for Foreign Affairs. ^ Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, see p.5 for statement of this ^ see pages 189, 191-192, and 183, paragraphs 120, 132, and 134 respectively[dead link] ^ a b "Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention: Declaration". Domino.un.org. http://domino.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/85255a0a0010ae82852555340060479d/8fc4f064b9be5bad85256c1400722951. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ Israel/Occupied Palestinian Territories: The conflict in Gaza: A briefing on applicable law, investigations and accountability Amnesty International. 2009-01-19. Retrieved 2009-06-05; Human Rights Council Special Session on the Occupied Palestinian Territories Human Rights Watch, July 6, 2006; Is Gaza 'occupied' territory? CNN, January 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-30. ^ [4] "'Against whom could we demonstrate in the Gaza Strip? When Gaza was occupied, that model was applicable,' Zahar said." Retrieved from Ma'an News Agency, January 5, 2012 ^ Israeli Cabinet Statement on Road Map and 14 Reservations, May 25, 2003 ^ The Mitchell Report BBC, November 29, 2001. ^ "Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court". Untreaty.un.org. http://untreaty.un.org/cod/icc/statute/romefra.htm. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ Occupation, Colonialism, Apartheid?, Human Sciences Research Council, May 2009, page 71 ^ "Israeli Settlements and International Law, Israel Foreign Ministry website". Mfa.gov.il. 2001-05-20. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/Israeli+Settlements+and+International+Law.htm. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ "Occupied Territories" to "Disputed Territories" by Dore Gold, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, January 16, 2002. Retrieved September 29, 2005. ^ "Foreign Missions in Israel -Continents". Mfa.gov.il. 2007-05-30. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Sherut/ForeignInIsrael/Continents/. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ a b c "United Nations International Meeting on the Convening of the Conference on Measures to Enforce the Fourth Geneva Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, UN website, Cairo, 14 and 15 June 1999". Unispal.un.org. http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/3B8A2154701B3FFA8525683C0056B022. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster. "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 10 May 2002 (pt 11)". Parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmhansrd/vo020510/text/20510w11.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ "Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention: Declaration - Switzerland text/Non-UN document (5 December 2001)". Unispal.un.org. http://unispal.un.org/unispal.nsf/85255e950050831085255e95004fa9c3/8fc4f064b9be5bad85256c1400722951?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ "Israel 'to keep some settlements'". BBC News. 2005-04-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4436739.stm. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ "Foreign relations of the United States, 1949. The Near East, South Asia, and Africa Volume VI, page 878 President Trutman to King A bdullah Ibn'el-Hussein of Transjordan". Digicoll.library.wisc.edu. http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&entity=FRUS.FRUS1949v06.p0894&id=FRUS.FRUS1949v06&isize=M. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ Remarks by Pres. Clinton, 1/7/01. (Full transcript available at: cnn transcript) ^ Tony Blair press conference, 4/17/04, UK Foreign Office official website, including comments on compromising on settlements, accessed 7/12/07. (Scroll down to question that begins with the phrase, "But Mr Sharon sees a final settlement...") ^ Excerpt: Clinton, Bill. "The 'Clinton Parameters.'" Jewish Virtual Library. 7 January 2001. Full transcript: "Transcript of Clinton's remarks to the Israel Policy Forum gala." CNN.com International. Cable News Network. 8 January 2010. Web. 15 October 2010. Transcript. ^ By DPA (2010-04-29). ""http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1146187.html "King Abdullah: Jordan wants no part of West Bank"". Haaretz.com. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1146187.html. Retrieved 2010-06-30. ^ "Ecuador becomes fifth Latin American country to recognize Palestinian state". Haaretz. 2010-12-25. http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/ecuador-becomes-fifth-latin-american-country-to-recognize-palestinian-state-1.332845. Retrieved 2010-12-25. ^ Palestinians in figures 2009 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics May 2010; p. 11 ^ Toni O'Loughlin in Jerusalem (2008-02-11). "Census finds Palestinian population up by 30%". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/11/israelandthepalestinians.population. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^ US Census Bureau International Programs International Data Base IDB West Bank and Gaza ^ Israel and Palestinian territories country profile ^ a b Palestine in Figures 2009 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, May 2010 ^ US Census Bureau International Programs International Data Base IDB West Bank and Gaza ^ Palestinians in figures 2009 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics May 2010 ^ Palestinians at the End of Year 2006 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics ^ (July 2010 est.) @ CIA The World Factbook. This data plus 1.66 million in Gaza (resulting 4.23 million) agrees with the 4.1 million figure given by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics @ Google Hosted News ^ Israeli settlers for (2008 est.) (July 2011 est.) [sic] estimation @ CIA The World Factbook ^ Estimation for July 2011 @ CIA The World Factbook. This data plus 2.57 million in the West Bank (resulting 4.23 million) agrees with the 4.1 million figure given by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics @ Google Hosted News ^ http://www.passia.org/palestine_facts/pdf/pdf2008/Population.pdf ^ As stated in List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density, in 2010, the total density raised to 681, ranking the 20th biggest of this list. ^ The Palestine Basic Law, approved by the PLC in March 2003, states in article 4 that "Arabic shall be the official language." ^ "Palestine". Tlfq.ulaval.ca. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/asie/palestine.htm. Retrieved 2013-01-03. ^ Henry G. Schermers and Niels M. Blokker, International Institutional Law, Hotei, 1995-2004, ISBN 90-04-13828-5, page 51 ^ Marjorie M. Whiteman, Digest of International Law, vol. 2, US State Department (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963) pages 1163-68 ^ See paragraph 2.20 of the Written Statement submitted by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan [5] ^ Sayigh, 1999, p. 624. ^ Europa World Publications, 2004, p. 905. ^ Dajani in Brownlie et al., 1999, p. 121. ^ a b c Gvirtzman, Haim. "Maps of Israeli Interests in Judea and Samaria Determining the Extent of the Additional Withdrawals". (this study was funded by the Settlement Division of the Zionist Organization) ^ a b c "''Map No. 1 - First Phase of Redeployment''". http://www.mfa.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/479C928A-E9B3-498A-BE2C-22101CEEFF29/0/MFAJ01v30.jpg. Retrieved 2013-01-03. ^ a b c d New York Times, 23 July 2012, Israel Seeks Army Use of West Bank Area ^ a b c "West Bank: Area C - OCHA map". Domino.un.org. 2011-02-22. http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/0/6b9eaba6d3ea5ce2852578410058a8c6?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2013-01-03. ^ Diab, Khaled (6 September 2012). "Bedouin kids' school of hard knocks". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/news/features/bedouin-kids-school-of-hard-knocks.premium-1.463104. Retrieved 9 September 2012. ^ History[dead link], Civil Society Network on the Question of Palestine, Division for Palestinian Rights, United Nations. ^ Mark A. Tessler, A History of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. page 211 ^ British mandate#Land ownership of the British Mandate of Palestine ^ Alexander Safian, Can Arabs Buy Land in Israel?, Middle East Quarterly Volume IV, Number 4, December 1997; citing Moshe Aumann, Land Ownership in Palestine 1880–1948, Israel Academic Committee on the Middle East (undated, approximately 1970). The Negev statement is in Aumann. ^ Announcement in the UK House of Commons of the recognition of the State of Israel and also of the annexation of the West Bank by the State of Jordan. Commons Debates (Hansard) 5th series, Vol 474, pp1137-1141. April 27, 1950. scan (PDF) ^ Palestinian National Charter[dead link], 1964 ^ "Khartoum Resolutions". Mideastweb.org. 1967-06-19. http://www.mideastweb.org/khartoum.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-30. [edit] External links Find more about Palestinian territories at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Statistical Atlas of Palestine at the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Global Integrity Report: West Bank has a governance and anti-corruption profile. Gaza Strip entry at The World Factbook West Bank entry at The World Factbook Palestinian Territories at the United States Department of State. Palestine from UCB Libraries GovPubs. Palestinian Territory at the Open Directory Project Palestine under the Ottoman Rule Palestinian territories street-art The Question of Palestine & the United Nations PDF, published by the United Nations Department of Public Information, March 2003. UN Brochure DPI/2276. Online, chapters are in PDF format. v t e  Palestinian nationalism and the region of Palestine Palestine (historic region) State of Palestine Palestinian National Authority Name and definition Timeline of the name "Palestine" Definitions of Palestine History Time periods Demographics Israeli–Palestinian conflict Palestinians Culture Refugees Diaspora Right of return Political status History Palestine Liberation Organization Green Line Palestinian territories West Bank History Geography Gaza Strip History Geography East Jerusalem Positions on Jerusalem Jerusalem Governorate Oslo Accords Interim Agreement ("Oslo 2") Politics Cities (PNA–administered) Electoral districts Foreign relations Governorates Law Legislative Council Political parties Fatah Hamas v t e Palestinian National Authority and the Palestinian people History History of the Palestinian territories (West Bank  · Gaza Strip) History of Palestine History of the Palestinian people History of the Palestinian National Authority Palestinian nationalism British Mandate Palestinian Declaration of Independence Years in the Palestinian territories Conflict Israeli-Palestinian History Timeline 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandate Palestine United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine 1948 Arab–Israeli War 1948 Palestinian exodus Israeli-occupied territories Peace process Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon First Lebanon War First Intifada Oslo Accords Oslo 2 Second Intifada Road map for peace Israeli West Bank barrier Israel's unilateral disengagement plan 2007–present blockade of the Gaza Strip Gaza War Israel and the apartheid analogy Positions on Jerusalem Jordan-PLO Palestine Liberation Organization Palestine Liberation Army Dawson's Field hijackings Black September in Jordan Hamas-Fatah Timeline of the Fatah–Hamas conflict Battle of Gaza (2007) 2009 Hamas political violence in Gaza Hamas-Jund Ansar Allah clash Government PNA controlled West Bank Prime Minister President Palestinian National Council Palestinian Legislative Council Judicial system Hamas controlled Gaza Strip Prime Minister President Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice Security Palestinian National Security Forces Preventive Security Force United States security assistance to the Palestinian Authority Politics State of Palestine (International recognition) Political parties (DFLP Fatah Hamas FIDA Palestinian National Initiative PPP PFLP Third Way PPSF) Palestinian right of return Palestinian political violence Elections Geography Palestinian territories Gaza Strip West Bank (Northern WB  · Southern WB) East Jerusalem Borders Cities Governorates Landforms Arab localities in Israel Depopulated villages Economy Companies Economy Palestine Securities Exchange Palestine Monetary Authority Transport Agriculture Tourism Culture and
society Palestinian culture Palestinian people Palestinian Christians Diaspora Refugee camps Arab citizens of Israel Archaeology Art Cinema Costume and embroidery Cuisine Dance Demographics Education (universities and colleges) Handicrafts Health care Human rights LGBT rights Language Literature Media Music Personalities Postage stamps and history Religion Places of worship Sports Palestinian flag Foreign affairs Foreign relations Israel, Palestinians, and the United Nations Foreign Affairs Minister of the Palestinian National Authority Diplomatic missions of Palestine Diplomatic missions in Palestine International aid to Palestinians

Coordinates: 31°53′N 35°12′E / 31.883°N 35.2°E / 31.883; 35.2

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palestinian_territories&oldid=533334800" Categories: Palestinian territoriesDisputed territories in AsiaFertile CrescentGeography of IsraelGeography of the Middle EastIsraeli–Palestinian conflictLevantStates and territories established in 1967Western AsiaHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from December 2012Articles with dead external links from November 2012Articles with dead external links from June 2010Articles with dead external links from September 2011Wikipedia move-protected pagesWikipedia protected pages without expiryAll articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2012All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from August 2011Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2009Articles with dead external links from July 2012Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from February 2010Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2010Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2012 Navigation menu Personal tools Create accountLog in Namespaces Article Talk Variants Views Read Edit View history Actions Search Navigation Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages Afrikaans Ænglisc العربية Català Deutsch Español فارسی Íslenska Italiano עברית ქართული Latina Magyar Македонски Nederlands Norsk (bokmål)‎ Português Русский Simple English Slovenčina اردو Yorùbá 中文 This page was last modified on 16 January 2013 at 07:47.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Mobile view

Log In - The New York Times Help Home Page Today's Paper Video Most Popular Times Topics Please Log In PLEASE LOG IN

Log in to manage your products and services from The New York Times and the International Herald Tribune.

Don't have an account yet?
Create an account »

Subscribed through iTunes and need an NYTimes.com account?
Learn more »

In order to access our Web site, your Web browser must accept cookies from NYTimes.com. More information » E-Mail or Member ID Password Forgot Password? Remember Me Log In Contact Us NYTimes.com » Home Delivery » © 2013 The New York Times Company Site Map Privacy Your Ad Choices Advertise Terms of Sale Terms of Service Work With Us RSS Help Contact Us Site Feedback

Palestinian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Palestinian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

Palestinian may refer to:

Something of, from, or related to the geographic region of Palestine, the declared State of Palestine, or the "Palestinian territories" (i.e., West Bank and Gaza Strip) People residing in the above (or wishing to), such as: Palestinian Arabs (often simply called the "Palestinian people") Palestinian Christians, i.e., Christians with ethnic or family origins in Palestine, Palestinian Jews, a Jewish inhabitant of Palestine throughout certain periods of history Palestinian Arabic, a dialect of the Arabic language

See also:

Demographics of Palestine Demographics of the Palestinian territories Palestinian diaspora Palestinian refugee Culture of Palestine For specific persons, see List of Palestinians [edit] See also Look up palestinian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Definitions of Palestine Definitions of Palestinian List of all pages beginning with "Palestinian" This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palestinian&oldid=523568416" Categories: Disambiguation pagesHidden categories: All article disambiguation pagesAll disambiguation pagesArticle Feedback Blacklist Navigation menu Personal tools Create accountLog in Namespaces Article Talk Variants Views Read Edit View history Actions Search Navigation Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version This page was last modified on 17 November 2012 at 22:33.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Mobile view
Sources:

Leave a Reply





Featured

Chase Mobile (SM) for iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad on the iTunes ...

Chase Mobile (SM) for iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad on the iTunes App Store Apple Store Mac iPod iPhone iPad iTunes Support Search What’s New What is iTunes iTunes Charts Opening the iTunes Store.If iTunes doesn't open, click the iTunes application icon in your Dock or on your Windows desktop.Progress Indicator ...

continue reading



Beasts of the Southern Wild Movie Tickets, Reviews, and Photos ...

Beasts of the Southern Wild Movie Tickets, Reviews, and Photos - Fandango.com ...

continue reading



Ben Savage, Danielle Fishel join "Girl Meets World" pilot - CBS News

Ben Savage, Danielle Fishel join "Girl Meets World" pilot - CBS News CBSNews.com / CBS Evening News / CBS This Morning / 48 Hours / 60 Minutes / Sunday Morning / Face the Nation Video US World Politics Entertainment Health MoneyWatch SciTech Sports Crime More Blogs Political Eye Th...

continue reading



Engadget - Google+

Engadget - Google++YouSearchImagesMapsPlayYouTubeNewsGmailDriveCalendarMoreTranslateMobileBooksOffersWalletShoppingBloggerFinancePhotosVideosEven moreHidden fieldsAccount OptionsSign inProfileHomeProfilePeoplePhotosWhat's hotCommunitiesEventsHangouts On AirPagesLocalSettingsFeedbackHelp  ·  RegionNEW Privacy & Terms  ·  Maps Terms AboutPostsPhotosYouTubeProfileEngadgetVerified namewww...

continue reading



Adrienne Maloof-Nassif News, Pictures, and Videos | TMZ.com

Adrienne Maloof-Nassif News, Pictures, and Videos | TMZ.com LATEST STORIES    Adrienne MaloofMovin' On Up... The Hill Adrienne Maloof just inked a deal to lease a mega-mansion with an option to buy it ... for a pretty penny -- TMZ has learned.Adrienne will be moving to a swanky, gated comm...

continue reading



The Amazing Race 2012. Season 21 News, Watch TAR Episodes ...

The Amazing Race 2013. Season 22 News, Watch TAR Episodes Online BuddyTV Home TV Shows Actors News Photos Games BuddyTV App 7 Edit | Logout Admin mode: off ...

continue reading



Alex Jones' Piers Morgan Rant: Radio Host Unleashes Explosive ...

Alex Jones' Piers Morgan Rant: Radio Host Unleashes Explosive Pro-Gun Tirade (VIDEO) HuffPost's QuickRead... Loading... HuffPost's QuickRead... NBC iPhone app iPad app Android phone app Android tablet app More Log in Crea...

continue reading



FedEx - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

FedEx - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia FedEx From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Federal Express" redirects here. For the passenger train, see Federal Express (passenger train). "Fed Express" redirects here. For the tennis player with this nickname, see Roger Federer...

continue reading